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Syria

Asad Library

Markaz al Watha’iq al Tarikhiyya

Archives of the Syrian Arab Republic Ministry of Education Turkey

Istanbul University Archival Collection Archives of the Turkish Republic Military Museum Archives of the Turkish Republic Prime Minister, Istanbul Yildiz Saray Photo Archive, IRCICA

Lebanon

National Archives

American University of Beirut, Jafet Library

Periodical Collection

Special and Archival Collections

Switzerland

Archives of the League of Nations Permanent Mandate Commission, Geneva Germany

Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin Zentrum Moderner Orient Library

France

Archives Diplomatiques de Nantes, Nantes

Archives Ministere de la Defense, Armee du Levant, Vincennes

Bibliotheque nationale de France

United Kingdom

British National Archives, Kew Imperial War Museum, London

United States

Library of Congress, Abdul Hamid collection

Alif Ba’, Damascus daily newspaper, various dates L’Echo de Paris, Paris daily, various dates al Muqtabas, Damascus daily paper, various dates Janfia al cArabiyya, Jerusalem daily, 1927 L’Humanite, Paris daily, various dates al Fata al ’Arab, Damascus daily, various dates The Times, London daily, various dates Jarida al Bilad, Baghdad daily, various dates Al Qabas, Damascus daily, various dates Al Ayyam, Damascus daily, various dates Egyptian Gazette, Cairo weekly, various dates Manchester Guardian, Manchester daily, various dates Al Mussawar, Cairo weekly, various dates

Published Primary Sources

Abi Rashid, Hanna, Hawran al damiyya (Cairo, 1926, reprint, Beirut: Maktabat al Fikr al ‘Arabi, 1961)

Jabal al duruz (Cairo: 1925, reprint, Beirut: Maktabat al Fikr al ‘Arabi, 1961)

cAli, Tahsin, Mudhakirrat Tahsin cAli 1880 1970 (Beirut: al Mu’assasa al cArabiyya lil Diraset wa al Nashr, 2003) al cAs, Muhammad Sacid, al Tajarib al harbiyya fi harb al thawra al suriyya (Beirut, 1990)

Andrea, General Charles Joseph, La revolte druze et l’insurrection de Damas (Paris, 1937)

Arslan, Shakib, Sira Dhatiyya (Beirut: Dar al Talic a, 1969) al Askari, Jafar, A Soldier’s Story: From Ottoman Rule to Independent Iraq: The Memoirs of Jafar Pasha Al Askari (1885 1936), trans. Mustafa Tariq Al Askari (London: Arabian Publishers, 2003) de Caix, Robert, La Syne (Paris: Societe de l’histoire nationale, Plon, 1931) Carbillet, Capitaine Gabriel, Au Djebel Druse, choses vues et vecues (Paris: Editions Argo, 1929)

Coblentz, Paul, Le silence de Sarrail (Paris: L. Querelle, 1930)

Djemal Pasha, Ahmad, Memories of a Turkish Statesman, 1913 1919 (London: Hutchinson, 1922)

Doty, Bennett J., The Legion of the Damned: The Adventures of Bennett J. Doty in the French Foreign Legion as Told by Himself (New York: Century Co., 1928)

Dowson, Sir Ernest, An Inquiry into Land Tenure and Related Questions (Letchworth, England: printed for the Iraqi government by Garden City Press, 1932)

al Faris, Jurj, Man hum fi al calam al carabi (Damascus: matbac al ahali, 1957) Man huwafi suriyya 1949 (Damascus: matbac al ahali, 1950)

Gibb, Sir Alexander and partners, The Economic Development of Syria, report commissioned by the Ministry of Public Works and Communications, Republic of Syria (London: Knapp, Drewett and Sons, 1947) von der Goltz Colmar, Das Volk in Waffen (Berlin: R. V. Decker, 1883) al Hasani, cAbd al Razzaq, Tarikh al wizarat al cIraqiyya, vols. I III (Sidon: Matbac al cIrfan, 1953)

al Thawra al cIraqiyya al Kubra (Sidon: Matbac al cIrfan, 1952) al Hashimi, Taha, Mudhakkirat Taha al Hashimi (Beirut: Dar al Ta’lica, 1967 78)

al Husri, Satic, Mudhakkirati fi al cIraq, 1921 1940, 2 vols. (Beirut, 1967 8)

Yawm al Maysalun: Safaha min tarikh al carab al hadith (Beirut: Maktabat al Kishaf, 1947)

League of Nations Permanent Mandates Commission Minutes (League of Nations, Geneva: various dates)

Maarif Nazereti Salnamesi (Istanbul: AH 1318 [1901])

Mekatibi Askeriyye Sakirdaninim Umumi, Imtihanlarinim neticelerini (Istanbul: AH 1318 [1901])

Midhat, Ali Haydar, The Life of Midhat Pasha (London: J. Murray, 1903) Mtihlmann, Carl, Die deutsche Militar Mission in der TUrkei (Berlin: W. Rothschild, 1938)

Deutschland und die TUrkei 1913 1914: die Berufung der deutschen Militarmission nach der TUrkei 1913, das deutsch tUrkische BUndnis 1914 und der Eintritt der TUrkei in den Weltkrieg (Berlin: W. Rothschild, 1929)

Poullea, Alice, A Damas sous les bombes: Journal d’une Franfaise pendant la revolte Syrienne, 1924 1926 (Yvetot: Bretteville, 1926) al Qadi, Niqulaws, Arb’aun ‘aman fi Hawran waJabal al Duruz (Beirut, 1927) al Qawuqji, Fawzi, Mudhakkirat Fawzi al Qawuqji (reprint of both volumes of 1975 edition, edited by Khayriyya Qasimiyya, Damascus: al Tawzi, 1995) al Rayyis, Munir, al Kitab al dhahabi lil thawrat al wataniyya fi al mashriq al carabi: al thawra al suriyya al kubra, vol. I (Beirut: Dar al Tali‘ah lil Tiba‘ah wa al Nashr, 1969)

al Kitab al dhahabi lil thawrat al wataniyya fi al mashriq al carabi: thawra Filastin cam 1936, vol. II (Beirut: Dar al Tali‘ah lil Tiba‘ah wa al Nashr, 1969)

al Kitab al dhahabi lil thawrat al wataniyya fi al mashriq al carabi: harb al cIraq cam 1941, vol. III (Beirut: Dar al Tali‘ah lil Tiba‘ah wa al Nashr, 1969) al Sacid, Amin, al Thawra al carabiyya al kubra (Beirut: Dar al katib al ‘arabi, reprint, n.d.)

al Sacid, Nuri, Mudhakkirat Nuri al Sacid can al harakat al caskariyya liljaysh al cArabi fi al Hijaz wa Suriyya, 1916 1918: al Fariq al rukn Nuri al Sacid cala tullab Kulliyyat al Arkan bi Baghdad fi Mayis 1947 (Beirut: al Dar al‘Arabiyya lil Mawsu‘at, 1987)

al Shahbandar, cAbd al Rahman, al Thawra al Suruyya al Kubra: Mudhakkirat al duktur cAbd al Rahman al Shahbandar (Beirut: 1967, reprint, Damascus: manshuratwazara al thaqafa, 1993)

Mudhakkirat wal khutab (Beirut, 1967, reprint Damascus: manshurat wazara al thaqafa, 1993)

Salname i Nazaret i Maarif i Umumiyye (Istanbul: Matbaa i Amire, AH1316 [1899])

Salname i Nazaret i Maarif i Umumiyye (Istanbul: Matbaa i Amire, AH1319 [1901])

al Zirikli, Khayr ad Din, al Aclam: qamus tarajim li ashar ar rijal wa’n nisa min carab wa’l mustacribin al mustasthriqin, 8 vols., reprint of c. 1950 (Beirut: dar al calam al malayin, 1990)

Unpublished Dissertations

Abu Fakhr, Fandi, “Tarikh liwa’ Hawran al ijtimacal Suwayda’ Darca al Qunaytra cAjlun, 1840 1918,” self published PhD dissertation,

Damascus University, 1999

Ajay, Nicholas, “Mount Lebanon and the Wilayah of Beirut, 1914 1918: the War Years,” unpublished PhD dissertation, Georgetown University, 1972 Anderson, Charles W., “From Petition to Confrontation: The Palestinian National Movement and the Rise of Mass Politics, 1929 1939,” unpub lished PhD dissertation, New York University, 2013 Bailony, Reem, “Transnational Rebellion: The Syrian Revolt of 1925 1927,” unpublished PhD dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, 2015 Dalati, Aziz Amin, “The Ghouta of Damascus,” unpublished B.B.A. thesis, AUB, 1938

Griffiths, Merwin, “The Reorganization of the Ottoman Army under Abdtil Hamid II 1880 1907,” unpublished PhD dissertation, UCLA, 1966 Marr, Phebe, “Yasin al Hashimi: The Rise and Fall of a Nationalist (A Study of the Nationalist Leadership in Iraq, 1920 1936),” unpublished PhD disser tation, Harvard University, 1966

Meouchy, Nadine, “Les formes de conscience politique et communautaire au Liban et en Syrie a l’epoque du mandat Fran9ais 1920 1939,” unpublished Doctorat en Histoire dissertation, Universite de Paris, 1989 Mufarrij, Fuad K., “Syria and Lebanon under French Mandate,” unpublished MA thesis, AUB, 1935

Nashibi, Hisham A., “The Political Parties in Syria, 1918 1939,” unpublished MA thesis, AUB, 1952

al Qaysi, Abdul Wahhab Abbas, “The Impact of Modernization on Iraqi Society During the Ottoman Era: A Study of Intellectual Development in Iraq, 1869 1917,” unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Michigan, 1958

Rustum, Asad, “Syria Under Mehemet Ali,” unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Chicago, 1923

Sanagan, Mark, “Lightning Through the Clouds: Islam, Community, and Anti Colonial Rebellion in the Life and Death of Izz al Din al Qassam, 1883 1935,” unpublished PhD dissertation, McGill University, 2016 Tomeh, Ramez George, “Landownership and Political Power in Damascus: 1858 1958,” unpublished MA thesis, AUB, 1977 Steven Wagner, “British Intelligence and Policy in the Palestine Mandate, 1919 1939,” unpublished DPhil dissertation, University of Oxford, 2014

Abu Husayn, Abdul Rahim, Bayn al markaz wa al atraf: Hawran fi al watha’iq al cUthmaniyya (London: Druze Heritage Foundation, 2015)

cAbd al cAziz Muhammad cAwad, al Idara al cuthmaniyya fi wilayat suriyya, 1864 1914 (Cairo: Dar al macruf, 1969)

Agha Kassab, Sawsan and Tadmori, Omar, Beirut and the Sultan: 200 Photographs from the Albums of Abdul Hamid II (1876 1909) (Beirut: Beirut Municipality, 2002)

Akarli, Engin Deniz, “Abdtilhamid Il’s Attempt to Integrate Arabs into the Ottoman System,” in David Kushner (ed.), Palestine in the Late Ottoman Period (Jerusalem and Leiden: yad Izhak Ben Zvi/Brill, 1986)

The Long Peace: Ottoman Lebanon, 1861 1920 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993)

Aksakal, Mustafa, The Ottoman Road to War in 1914: The Ottoman Empire and the First World War (Cambridge University Press, 2008)

Antonius, George, The Arab Awakening: The Story of the Arab National Movement (London: H. Hamilton, 1938)

Batatu, Hanna, The Old Social Classes and the Revolutionary Movements of Iraq (Princeton University Press, 1978)

Syria’s Peasantry, the Descendants of its Lesser Rural Notables, and their Politics (Princeton University Press, 1999)

Beinen, Joel and Lockman, Zachary, Nationalism, Communism, Islam, and the Egyptian Working Class, 1882 1954 (Princeton University Press, 1987) al Bi’ayni, Hasan Amin, Duruz suriyya wa lubnan fi cahd al intidab al fransi, 1920 1943 (Beirut: al Markaz al ‘Arabi li al Abhat wa alTawtiq, 1993) Bokova, Lenka, La confrontation franco syrienne a l’epoque du mandat, 1925 27 (Paris: L’Harmattan, 1990)

Burke, Edmund III, “The Sociology of Islam: The French Tradition,” in Malcolm Kerr (ed.), Islamic Studies: A Tradition and its Problems (Malibu, CA, 1980), pp. 73 88

“A Comparative View of French Native Policy in Morocco and Syria, 1912 1925,” MES, 9 (May 1973), 177

“Understanding Arab Protest Movements,” Arab Studies Quarterly, 8:4 (1987), 333 45

Chatterjee, Partha, The Nation and its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories (Princeton University Press, 1993)

Commins, David Dean, Islamic Reform: Politics and Change in Late Ottoman Syria (Oxford University Press, 1992)

Dawud, Ahmad Yusuf, al Mujahid Sa ad al cAs (Damascus: Dar al Mustaqbal, 1990)

Deringil, Salim, “The Invention of Tradition as Public Image in the Late Ottoman Empire, 1808 to 1908,” in Comparative Studies in Society and History, 35 (1993), 3 29

The Well Protected Domains: Ideology and the Legitimation of Power in the Ottoman Empire, 1876 1909 (London: I.B. Tauris, 1998)

Doumani, Beshara, Rediscovering Palestine: Merchants and Peasants in Jabal Nablus, 1700 1900 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995)

Evered, Emine O., Empire and Education under the Ottomans: Politics, Reform and Resistance from the Tanzimat to the Young Turks (London: I.B. Tauris, 2012)

Faris, Basim (ed.), A Postwar Bibliography of the Near Eastern Mandates, 5 vols. (Beirut, 1932)

Fawwaz, Leila Tarazi, A Land of Aching Hearts: The Middle East in the Great War (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014)

Findley, Carter, Ottoman Civil Officialdom: A Social History (Princeton University Press, 1989)

Firro, Kais M., A History of the Druzes (Leiden: Brill, 1992)

Fortna, Benjamin, Imperial Classroom: Islam, the State, and Education in the Late Ottoman Empire (Oxford, 2002)

Frevert, Ute, A Nation in Barracks: Modern Germany, Military Conscription, and Civil Society, trans. Andrew Boreham (Oxford: Berg, 2004)

Gelvin, James L., Divided Loyalties: Nationalism and Mass Politics in Syria at the Close of Empire (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998)

“The Social Origins of Popular Nationalism in Syria: Evidence for a New Framework,” IJMES, 26 (1994), 645 61 Handan, Nezir Achme§e, The Birth of Modern Turkey: The Ottoman Military and the March to World War I (London: I.B. Tauris, 2005)

Hanioglu, Stikrti, Atatiirk: An Intellectual Biography (Princeton University Press, 2013)

Hanna, cAbdallah, al cAmmiyya wa al intifadat al falahiyya (1850 1918) fi jabal Hawran (Damascus: al ahali, 1990)

al Haraka al cummaliyya fi suriyya wa lubnan: 1900 1945 (Damascus: dar dimashq, 1973)

al Qadiyya al ziraciyya wa al harakat al fallahiyya fi suriyya wa lubnan (1820 1920), vols. I II (Beirut: dar al Farabi, 1975 and 1978)

Hanssen, Jens, Fin de Siecle Beirut: The Making of an Ottoman Provincial Capital (Oxford University Press, 2005)

Himadeh, Sa’id (ed.), Economic Organization of Syria (Beirut: AUB Press, 1936)

Hobsbawm, Eric, The Age of Empire: 1875 1914 (New York: Vintage, 1987) Hourani, Albert, “Ottoman Reform and the Politics of Notables,” in William Polk and Richard Chambers (eds.), Beginnings of Modernization in the Middle East: The Nineteenth Century (Chicago University Press, 1968)

Syria and Lebanon: A Political Essay (Oxford: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1946)

Hughes, Matthew, Allenby and British Strategy in the Middle East, 1917 1919 (London: Frank Cass, 1999)

“A Very British Affair? The Repression of the Arab Revolt in Palestine, 1936 39 (Part One),” Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research 87:351 (Autumn 2009), 234 55

Hull, Isabel V., Absolute Destruction: Military Culture and the Practices of War in Imperial Germany (New York: Cornell University Press, 2006) al Jundi, Adham, Tarikh al Thawrat al Suriyya fi cAhd al Intidab al Fransi (Damascus: Matbacat al Ittihad, 1960)

Kasmieh, Khairieh (al Qasimiyya, Khayriyya). al Hukuma al ’arabiyya ft damashq bayn 1918 1920 (Cairo, 1971)

Kawtharani, Wajih, Ittijahat al ijtimafiyya al siyasiyya fi Jabal Lubnan wa al Mashriq al cArabi, 1860 1920 (Beirut: Ma‘had al Inma’ al ‘Arabi, 1978) Dawlah wa al khilafa fi al khitab al cArabi abbana al thawrah al Kamaliyya fi Turkiyya (Beirut: Dar al Tali‘a, 1996)

Kayali, Hasan, Arabs and Young Turks: Ottomanism, Arabism, and Islamism in the Ottoman Empire, 1908 1918 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997)

Keydar, Caglar and Tabak, Faruk (eds.), Landholding and Commercial Agriculture in the Middle East (New York: SUNY Press, 1991)

Khadduri, Majid, “‘Aziz ‘Ali al Misri and the Arab Nationalist Movement,” in Albert Hourani (ed.), Middle Eastern Affairs, no. 4 (St. Antony’s Papers, no. 17) (London, 1965)

Khalidi, Rashid, British Policy Towards Syria and Palestine, 1906 1914: A Study of the Antecedents of the Hussein the McMahon Correspondence, the Sykes Picot Agreement, and the Balfour Declaration (Oxford: Ithaca Press, 1980) Palestinian Identity: The Construction of Modern National Consciousness (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997)

Anderson, Lisa, Muslih, Muhammad, and Simon, Reeva (eds.), The Origins of Arab Nationalism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1991)

Khalidi, Tarif (ed.), Land Tenure and Social Transformation in the Middle East (Beirut: SAUB Press, 1984)

Khoury, Philip S. Syria and the French Mandate: The Politics of Arab Nationalism, 1920 1945 (Princeton University Press, 1987)

“A Reinterpretation of the Origins and Aims of the Great Syrian Revolt, 1925 1927,” in Atiyeh, George N. and Oweis, Ibrahim M., Arab Civilization: Challenges and Responses: Studies in Honor of Constantine K. Zurayk (Albany: State University of New York, 1988)

Kitchen, James E., The British Imperial Army in the Middle East: Morale and Military Identity in the Sinai and Palestine Campaigns, 1916 18 (London: Bloomsbury, 2014)

Koroglu, Erol, Ottoman Propaganda and Turkish Identity: Literature in Turkey During World War I (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007)

Latron, Andre, La vie rurale en Syne et au Liban (Beirut: Impr. Catholique, 1936)

Lewis, Norman, Nomads and Settlers in Syria and Jordan, 1800 1980 (Cambridge University Press, 1987)

Longrigg, Stephen H., Iraq, 1900 to 1950: A Political, Social, and Economic History (Oxford University Press, 1953)

Syria and Lebanon under French Mandate (Oxford University Press, 1958)

MacCallum, Elizabeth, The Nationalist Crusade in Syria (New York: Foreign Policy Association, 1928)

Makdisi, Ussama, Faith Misplaced: The Broken Promise of U.S. Arab Relations, 1820 2001 (New York: PublicAffairs, 2010)

Matthews, Weldon, Confronting an Empire, Constructing a Nation: Arab Nationalists and Popular Politics in Mandate Palestine (London: I.B. Tauris, 2006)

Mazower, Mark, No Enchanted Palace: The End of Empire and the Ideological Origins of the United Nations (Princeton University Press, 2009)

Meouchy, Nadine and Sluglett Peter (eds.), The British and French Mandates in Comparative Perspectives/Les Mandats Francais et Anglais dans une Perspective Comparative (Leiden: Brill, 2004)

Mundy, Martha and Smith, Richard Saumarez, Governing Property, Making the Modern State: Law, Administration and Production in Ottoman Syria (London: I.B. Tauris, 2007)

Nezir Akmese, Handan, The Birth of Modern Turkey: The Ottoman Military and the March to WWI (London: I.B. Tauris, 2005)

Parsons, Laila, The Commander: Fawzi al Qawuqji and the Fight for Arab Independence 1914 1948 (New York: Hill and Wang, 2016)

“Soldiering for Arab Nationalism: Fawzi al Qawuqji in Palestine,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 36:4 (Summer 2007), pp. 33 49 Pederson, Susan, The Guardians: The League of Nations and the Crisis of Empire (Oxford University Press, 2015)

Qarqut, Dhuqan, Tatawwur al haraka al wataniyya fi suriyya, 1920 1939 (Beirut: Dar al Tali‘a, 1975)

Rafeq, Abdul Karim, “Land Tenure Problems and their Social Impact in Syria around the Middle of the Nineteenth Century,” in Tarif Khalidi (ed.), Land Tenure and Social Transformation in the Middle East (Beirut: AUB Press, 1984)

The Province of Damascus, 1723 1783 (Beirut: Khayats, 1966)

Sluglett, Peter and Weber, Stefan (eds.), Syria and Bilad al Sham under Ottoman Rule: Essays in Honour of Abdul Karim Rafeq (Leiden: Brill, 2010) Ramsaur, Ernest E., The Young Turks: Prelude to the Revolution of 1908 (Princeton University Press, 1957)

Reilly, James A, “Property, Status, and Class in Ottoman Damascus,” JAORS, 112: 1 2 (1992), pp. 9 21

Reynolds, Michael A., Shattering Empires: The Clash and Collapse of the Ottoman and Russian Empires, 1908 1918 (Cambridge University Press, 2011) Roberts, Stephen H., History of French Colonial Policy, 1870 1925, vols. I II (London: P.S. King & Son, 1929)

Rogan, Eugene, “A§iret Mektebi Abdtilhamid II’s School for Tribes (1892 1907),” IJMES, 28 (1996), 83 107

The Fall of the Ottomans: The Great War in the Middle East, 1914 1920 (London: Basic Books, 2015)

al Safarjalani, Muhi al Din, al Tarikh al thawra al suriyya (Damascus, 1961) Salibi, Kamal, A House of Many Mansions: The History of Lebanon Reconsidered (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988)

Sara, Fayiz, Sacid al cAs, 1889 1936: Hayatahu Kifahahu (Damascus: man shurat wazara al thaqafa, 1993)

Schabler, Birgit, Aufstande im Drusenbergland: Ethnizitat und Integration einer Landlich en Gesellschaft Syriens vom Osmanischen Reich bis zur Staatlichen Unabhangigkeit, 1850 1949 (Gotha: Perthes, 1996)

Schayegh, Cyrus and Arsan, Andrew (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of the History of the Middle East Mandates (London: Routledge, 2015)

Schilcher, Linda, Families in Politics: Damascene Factions and Estates of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries (Stuttgart: F. Steiner, 1985)

“Railways in the Political Economy of Southern Syria 1890 1925,” in Thomas Philipp and Birgit Schaebler (eds.), The Syrian Land: Processes of Integration and Fragmentation in Bilad al Sham from the 18th to the 20th Century (Stuttgart: F. Steiner, 1998), pp. 97 112 Scholch, Alexander, “The Emergence of Modern Palestine (1856 1882),” in Hisham Nashabe (ed.), Studia Palaestina: Studies in Honor of Constantine K. Zurayk (Beirut: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1988), pp. 69 82 Seale, Patrick, The Struggle for Syria: A Study of Post War Arab Politics 1945 1958 (New Haven, Yale University Press, 1986)

Seikaly, Samir M., “Pacification of the Hawran (1910): The View From Within,” Essays on Ottoman Civilization: Proceedings of the Xllth Congress of the Comite international d’etudes pre ottomanes et ottomanes (Prague: Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Oriental Institute, 1996)

“Land Tenure in 17th Century Palestine: The Evidence from the Fatawa al Khairiyya,” in Tarif Khalidi (ed.), Land Tenure and Social Transformation in the Middle East (Beirut: AUB Press, 1984)

Shambrook, Peter A., French Imperialism in Syria, 1927 1936 (Reading, UK: Ithaca Press, 1998)

Sluglett, Marion Farouk and Sluglett, Peter, “The Application of the 1858 Land Code in Greater Syria: Some Preliminary Observations,” in Tarif Khalidi (ed.), Land Tenure and Social Transformation in the Middle East (Beirut, 1984) Sluglett, Peter, Britain in Iraq: Contriving King and Country (New York: Columbia University Press, 2007)

Somel, Sel9uk Ak§in, The Modernization of Public Education in the Ottoman Empire, 1839 1908: Islamization, Autocracy and Discipline (Leiden: Brill, 2001) Tamari, Salim, Year of the Locust: The Great War and the Erasure of Palestine’s Ottoman Past (Beirut: Institute for Palestine Studies, 2008)

Tanenbaum, Jan Karl, General Maurice Sarrail: The French Army and Left Wing Politics (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1974)

Tejel, Jordi, Sluglett, Peter, Bocco, Riccardo, and Bozarslan, Hamit (eds.), Writing the Modern History of Iraq: Historiographical and Political Challenges (Singapore: World Scientific, 2012)

Thomas, Martin, Empires of Intelligence: Security Services and Colonial Disorder after 1914 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007)

Thompson, Elizabeth, Colonial Citizens: Republican Rights, Paternal Privilege, and Gender in French Syria and Lebanon (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000)

Justice Interrupted: The Struggle for Constitutional Government in the Middle East (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013)

Tibawi, Abdul Latif, American Interests in Syria, 1800 1901: A Study of Educational, Literary and Religious Work (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966)

A Modern History of Syria Including Lebanon and Palestine (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1969)

Trumpener, Ulrich, Germany and the Ottoman Empire 1914 1918 (Princeton University Press, 1968)

“German Officers in the Ottoman Empire, 1880 1918: Some Comments on their Backgrounds, Functions, and Accomplishments,” in Jehuda L. Wallach (ed.), Germany and the Middle East: 1835 1939 (Tel Aviv: Nateev Press, 1975), pp. 30 44

cUbayd, Salama, al Thawra al suriyya al kubra: 1925 1927 cala dawa’ watha’iq lam tunshar (Beirut: dar al ghad, 1971)

Uyar, Mesut “Ottoman Arab Officers between Nationalism and Loyalty,” War in History, 20:4 (2013), pp. 526 44

Uyar, Mesut and Erickson, Edward, A Military History of the Ottomans: From Osman to Atatiirk (Santa Barbara: Praeger Security International, 2009)

Warriner, Doreen, Land Reform and Development in the Middle East (Oxford University Press, 1962)

Weber, Stefan, Damascus: Ottoman Modernity and Urban Transformation, 1808 1918 (Aarhus University Press, 2009)

Weiss, Max, In the Shadow of Sectarianism: Law, Shi‘ism and the Making of Modern Lebanon (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010)

Weulersse, Jacques, Paysans de Syrie et du Proche Orient (Paris: Gallimard, 1946)

White, Benjamin Thomas, The Emergence of Minorities in the Middle East: The Politics of Community in French Mandate Syria (Edinburgh University Press, 2011)

Wilson, Mary, King Abdullah, Britain and the Making of Jordan (Cambridge University Press, 1990)

Wright, Philip Qunicy, “The Bombardment of Damascus,” American Journal of International Law, 20:2 (1926), pp. 263 80

Zeine, N. Zeine, The Struggle for Arab Independence: Western Diplomacy and the Rise and Fall of Faisal’s Kingdom in Syria, 2nd edition (New York: Caravan, 1977)

Zhrcher, Erik Jan, “The Vocabulary of Muslim Nationalism,” International Journal of the Sociology of Science, 137 (1999)

“The Ottoman Conscription System in Theory and Practice, 1844 1918,” International Review of Social History, 43 (1998)

(ed.), Jihad and Islam in World War I: Studies on the Ottoman Jihad on the Centenary of Snouck Hurgronje’s “Holy War Made in Germany” (Leiden University Press, 2016)

 
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