Type of Work

Work is the task performed to add value to the company. Performing the work involves the use of resources (e.g., time, money, energy, tools, human efforts, technologies, and facilities) and applicable procedures. There are three types of work:

  • 1. Management work: Plan, organize, lead, and control the efforts of self and others; this requires thinking.
  • 2. Technical work: Specialized, nonmanagement work done by engineering managers if others cannot do it for them; this requires doing.
  • 3. Operating work: Management and technical work that has been delegated to others; this requires monitoring and controlling.

Chain of Command

The chain of command refers to the chain of direct authority relationships between superiors and subordinates. This is derived from the traditional military systems.

Principle of Unity of Command

According to this principle, an individual worker reports to a single superior.


Efficiency refers to the accomplishment of a given task with the least amount of effort. Being efficient means not wasting resources (e.g., time, money, equipment, facilities, skills, talents, and management attention).

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