Expressive Arts Approaches

Art and other expressive modalities have been practiced in counseling and psychotherapy since the early 1940s. The first use of the expressive arts as a systematic approach in counseling and psychotherapy was at Lesley College Graduate School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in the early 1970s (Levine & Levine, 1999). Shan McNiff, Pablo Knill, and Norma Canner developed the Expressive Therapy Program, which based its curriculum on an integrative model of expressive art modalities (Levine & Levine, 1999). Based on Knill's work, many more programs in expressive arts were introduced in colleges and universities across Europe and North America. Knill is also credited with the creation of the community art-making approach that has become a large part of urban development and outreach in major cities around the Western hemisphere (Levine & Levine, 1999).

Narrative Approaches

Freud is often credited with the integration of narrative into his psychoanalytic approach (Lieblich, McAdams, & Josselson, 2004). However, Michael White is credited as the founder of narrative therapy and a major contributor, along with David Epston, to the effective growth of this approach. The narrative approach as a therapeutic tool has its root in family counseling but has become an independent approach to counseling over the last 10 to 20 years (Henehan, 2003). This approach is often used by family therapists to help clients understand their relational interactions with other family members. As the use of this approach has grown outside of family counseling, narrative has become an intervention more readily grounded in viewing clients as a component of social, cultural, and structural systems (Speedy, 2004). Out of the numerous approaches to integrative counseling, the narrative approach is the most widely used and conceptually developed therapeutic application (Henehan, 2003; McLeod, 2004).

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