Thanks for comments and suggestions to Bronia Flett, University of Aberdeen, and Donelson

Forsyth, Crystal Hoyt, and participants at the “Leadership and the Collective Good”

Colloquium held at the Jepson School of Leadership Studies at the University of Richmond,

Virginia, January 22-23, 2010.

  • 1. This chapter draws directly on the argument and the discussion of the Russian and English Civil Wars in Mitchell (2004).
  • 2. With the restoration, and in contrast, Cromwell’s body was exhumed, hung, decapitated, and exposed to public vilification. His head was put on a pole.
  • 3. See Volkogonov (1994, p. 209) and Steinberg and Khrustalev (1995) for a discussion of the evidence.
  • 4. One recent account cites a royalist cleric: He describes how, “parliamentary troops shot through the windows of his house, where over thirty Protestants had gathered seeking sanctuary, killing one person and seriously wounding another. The soldiers broke into the building, discharging their weapons, before the timely intervention of an officer known to the dean restored order” (O Siochru, 2008, p. 89). From this description, the claim is that “according to the one surviving civilian account of the storming of Drogheda, troops of the New Model Army deliberately attacked non-combatants in their homes” (O Siochru, 2008, p. 89). The cleric’s account, which was known to earlier historians (Abbott, 1939, II, p. 121), would also support the argument that Cromwell and his officers sought to control their soldiers and protect noncombatants from collateral violence.
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