Notes

  • 1. For a discussion on migration selectivity in Romania’s rural areas in the first decade after 1990, see Sandu (2000).
  • 2. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bac%C4%83u_County#/media/ File:Bacau_in_Romania.svg
  • 3. Cleja is a commune encompassing three villages, but the commune is also a village so we can use the two terms interchangeably.
  • 4. The religious structure of the population of the commune Cleja, according to the data of NIS, the 2011 census: 6352 Roman Catholic and 120 Orthodox.
  • 5. This is related to nationalising efforts from the Hungarian parts. As Cotoi puts it, “There is a constructing, Hungarian strategy and an effacing, Romanian one. Any discourse on Csango identity trying to avoid the pitfalls of these two nationalizing strategies finds itself in the strange situation of having to speak about an ethnic entity without constituting it (in a Hungarian nationalist sense) but also without denying it any right of existence (in a Romanian nationalist way)” (Cotoi 2013, 435).
  • 6. Such twinning of Romanian villages and villages in other countries are quite common in Romania (especially when it comes to France due to the francophone history in Romania), usually through schools, and they create exchanges between the two localities in terms of education and goods received by Romanians.
  • 7. The migration community census of 2001 at locality level was coordinated by the IOM and Dumitru Sandu. For more details, see Sandu (2000).
  • 8. Romanian migration abroad for economic reasons can be divided into three main periods between 1989 and 2006: the incipient period of individual short-term migration between 1990 and 1995, the collective exploratory one of 2001-2002, and the period until 2006. After 2006, the number of departures increased as a consequence of the liberalisation of Romanians’ circulation inside the Schengen area (Sandu 2010a, 7). Due to the development of migration networks and formal or informal institutions, each of the three periods knew specific elements regarding the selectivity of migration: the composition of the population, the destinations, and the strategies used by the people in the process. Subsequently, the 2007 EU integration and the financial crisis which became manifest in Romania around 2008-2009 also influenced the dynamics of the Romanians’ departures for work abroad, with impact on migration selectivity, the orientation towards specific destinations and the occupational status abroad.
  • 9. See more on state policy and bilateral agreements between countries with regard to international migration for work in Serban and Stoica (2007).
  • 10. In discussing migration, interviewees frequently make the distinction between the time before the crisis and what came since the crisis, referring to the economic crisis.
  • 11. Throughout the interview, the priest from Cleja describes how locals from more villages of the commune get together at church, this being an important location for exchanging information.
  • 12. For more information, see the studies in Anghel and Horvath (2009), Radu (2001), Serban and Grigorag (2000). The studies are mainly focused on Neo-Protestant confessions, which are very visible for the rural Romanian migration abroad.
  • 13. Home orientation is primarily visible through objective behaviours—economic remittances, communication with those at the origin—and intention to return (Sandu 2010b). Among the factors that are relevant for the intention to return are knowledge of the language at the destination, migrants’ perceptions regarding the effects on the family and identity reasons (Sandu 2010a, 77-93).
  • 14. This refers to the mobilisation of resources with the goal of return (Cassarino 2004) or the presence of “structured plans for return” (Sandu 2010a, 78).
  • 15. As is the case, for example, with the Adventists from Teleorman to Coslada (Serban 2009).
  • 16. For example, a community study at country level showed that specific regions of Romania send large flows to specific countries, depending on the religious affiliation that is predominant: “Italy, a Catholic country, mainly attracts migrants from West of Moldavia [historical region from North East Romania] and regions from Transylvania, where the Catholic population prevails” (Sandu 2000, 26).
 
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