Sources of Toxic Air Pollutants Major Point Sources

These are stationary facilities or special processes, produce at least 10 tons of a single contaminant per year or at least 25 tons of a mixture of hazardous air pollutants per year. They include cement kilns, the chemical industry, the fertilizer industry, industrial, commercial, and institutional boilers, iron and steel manufacturing plants, petroleum refineries, power plants, pulp and paper mills, solid waste incinerators, and toxic waste storage, transfer, treatment, and disposal facilities. (See Other Major Sources of Air Pollution above for specific problems and Best Practices for each of these listed industrial operations.)

Area and Other Sources (Smaller Sources)

(See endnote 4)

Area and other sources are a series of small sources which by themselves would not be a significant problem, but when added together become a major concern. One of the greatest sources of emissions is the leaking of VOCs from equipment, tanks, and their components. This includes valves, connectors, pumps, sampling connections, compressors, pressure-relief devices, and open-ended lines. Between 90% and 95% of the leakage comes from the connectors and valves, with the majority of the problems due to seal or gasket failure because of normal wear or improper maintenance. These sources include but are not limited to those listed in this book. (To list all the potential sources would be beyond the scope and size of the book.) Some of the points mentioning sources below only discuss briefly some of the contaminants and sources of contaminants. To state all the Best Practices would be highly repetitive. (See endnote 21.) (See Stationary Sources and Best Practices for Stationary Sources.)

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