Best Practices in Processing Milk and Dairy

The Best Practices in all aspects of the processing of milk and dairy have been evolving and documented in great depth by the United States Public Health Service since 1924. The document is entitled “Grade ‘A’ Pasteurized Milk Ordinance” (2011 Revision) and was revised in 2013. It provides for states and localities as well as others the most up-to-date in-depth document on milk sanitation and production from the cow to the consumer. It would be a duplication of effort to list other Best Practices. (See endnote 33.)


Poultry processing areas can be highly unsanitary because of the presence of substantial quantities of blood, dirt, and feathers. In addition, fecal waste and other solid wastes are a constant and substantial problem. Rats, flies, roaches, and other insects may be found in substantial quantities. The slaughtered birds must be chilled immediately. Antiquated processing methods that include the use of a common rinsing submersion after evisceration have been implicated in the spread of multistate outbreaks of multidrug-resistant Salmonella organisms. Major concerns relate to the feed and water as well as the presence of sick birds in the slaughtering process.

Best Practices and Poultry Processing

  • • Follow all Best Practices in Processing of Meat and Meat Products (including endnotes).
  • • Keep birds well hydrated and reduce stress.
  • • Eliminate all sick or injured birds from the slaughtering process.
  • • Accurately monitor water temperatures in the slaughtering process as well as in the prechilling tank.
  • • Add clean ice made of potable water to keep the birds chilled to an internal temperature of 40°F for storage, transportation, and handling.
  • • Sell as rapidly as possible, but not later than 2 days after slaughter if fresh and not frozen.
  • • Protect all sources of surface and ground water supplies from poultry manure litter and waste water by using proper disposal and/or treatment techniques.
  • • Keep all poultry confinement areas clean and with dry litter.
  • • Thoroughly clean all areas especially where de-feathering occurs and where blood is present.
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