Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Pesticide-Related Illness and Injury Surveillance: A How-To Guide for State-Based Programs
(See endnote 25)
The manual provides information on how to develop and maintain programs to evaluate acute and sub-acute health effects from pesticide exposure. Pesticide poisoning is very complex to understand since it can produce a variety of symptoms and can occur over various time periods. The poisoning also may be due to single exposures or multiple exposures of the same toxin or a mixture of toxins over a period of time. The guidelines help set standards for conducting the investigation of the incident, the types of technical resources needed, methods of data collection, methods of reporting the information, and outreach to various groups and educational efforts.
Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risk (SENSOR)
(See endnote 26)
SENSOR is an occupational illness and injury surveillance program for the states. NIOSH provides technical support to state health departments on how to gather these data. Financial support may come from NIOSH or EPA. The data are utilized to develop preventive techniques in certain industries in order to eliminate or mitigate pesticide hazards. They are also a timely means of identifying for local and state governments acute occupational or environmental exposure to chemicals and provides immediate data on what is happening and therefore how best to deal with it and the chemical or chemicals which may cause massive health, safety, and environmental problems.
National Poison Data System
This is a compilation of all the data from the phone calls that are received at the poison control centers in all states. This helps NIOSH determine if an acute incident is occurring and immediate action needs to be taken.
Toxic Exposure Surveillance System
The Toxic Exposure Surveillance System is a national, real-time database including all human exposures reported to poison control centers since 1985. About 44% of the initial reports are followed up to get additional information. The database searches for unusual occurrences in the hourly case volume for the poison control centers, and additional information may be sought and interpreted by clinical toxicologists on individual cases or on a pattern of cases. This helps scientists understand what is occurring and when to make a significant decision about what to do concerning prevention, mitigation, and control of the chemical event. (See endnote 29.)