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Advanced Wastewater Treatment (Tertiary Treatment)

Tertiary treatment can be an extension of the secondary treatment and get rid of more of the biological material including a variety of microorganisms and/or it may be utilized specifically to get rid of certain nutrients which can affect bodies of water.

Physical/chemical treatment processes include adsorption using activated alumina, granular activated carbon, granular iron, and powdered activated carbon; disinfection using ozone, chlorine, bromine, and ultraviolet light; nutrient removal by air stripping, denitrification filters, ion-exchange, chemical precipitation with alum, iron salts, and zeolite, and using a solids contact clarifier to remove phosphorus; chemical oxidation with chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, oxygen, and ozone; and advanced oxidation using catalysts, hydrogen peroxide plus ferrous ions, and ultraviolet light plus titanium dioxide. (See endnote 44, Chapter 2.)

Biological treatment processes innovative technologies for tertiary treatment include anaerobic processes such as anaerobic attached growth systems, the anaerobic contact process, anaerobic sequencing batch reactors, and anaerobic sludge blanket upflow; BOD removal and nitrification including aerated lagoons, complete mix activated sludge, contact stabilization, conventional extended aeration high purity oxygen, sequencing batch reactors, etc.; biofilm processes using, for instance, biological aerated filters, fluidized bed bioreactors, trickling filters, etc.; nitrogen removal using, for instance, a denitrification filter, a simultaneous nitrification denitrification process, etc.; nitrogen and phosphorus removal; membrane process; and bioaugmentation. (See endnote 44, Chapter 3.)

 
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