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SUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR GENERAL AND SPECIFIC SOURCES OF WATER CONTAMINATION, PREVENTION, MITIGATION, AND CONTROL

As can be seen in the list of potential contaminating circumstances shown below, there are innumerable other problems that can cause drinking water quality to deteriorate in such a manner that it can become undrinkable, cause short-term and long-term disease, and deprive industry, people, and other ecosystems of the necessary potable water to continue to thrive and exist. It is only through prevention, mitigation, control, and appropriate water treatment that life can exist and thrive in our modern society. A quick way to gather the necessary information concerning potential pollutants and how to avoid them or mitigate them is by using the index to find the subjects below.

  • Acid Mine Drainage—See Chapter 14, “Water Quality and Water Pollution”
  • Acid Rain—See Chapter 2, “Air Quality (Outdoor [Ambient] and Indoor)”
  • Agriculture—See Chapter 2, “Air Quality (Outdoor [Ambient] and Indoor)”; Chapter 12, “Solid Waste, Hazardous Materials, and Hazardous Waste Management”; and Chapter 14, “Water Quality and Water Pollution”
  • Air Pollution Deposits—See Chapter 14, “Water Quality and Water Pollution”
  • Air Toxics—See Chapter 2, “Air Quality (Outdoor [Ambient] and Indoor)”; Chapter 12, “Solid Waste, Hazardous Materials, and Hazardous Waste Management”; and Chapter 14, “Water Quality and Water Pollution”
  • Businesses—See Chapter 2, “Air Quality (Outdoor [Ambient] and Indoor)”
  • Cement Kilns—See Chapter 2, “Air Quality (Outdoor [Ambient] and Indoor)”; and Chapter 12, “Solid Waste, Hazardous Materials, and Hazardous Waste Management”
  • Chemical Industry—See Chapter 2, “Air Quality (Outdoor [Ambient] and Indoor)”; and Chapter 12, “Solid Waste, Hazardous Materials, and Hazardous Waste Management”
  • Climate Change—See Chapter 2, “Air Quality (Outdoor [Ambient] and Indoor)”; Chapter 12, “Solid Waste, Hazardous Materials, and Hazardous Waste Management”; and Chapter 14, “Water Quality and Water Pollution”
  • Combined Stormwater and Sanitary Sewers—See Chapter 11, “Sewage Disposal Systems”; and Chapter 14, “Water Quality and Water Pollution”
  • Composting—See Chapter 12, “Solid Waste, Hazardous Materials, and Hazardous Waste Management”
  • Construction and Demolition Industry—See Chapter 2, “Air Quality (Outdoor [Ambient] and Indoor)”; Chapter 12, “Solid Waste, Hazardous Materials, and Hazardous Waste Management”; and Chapter 14, “Water Quality and Water Pollution”
  • Controlled Burns—See Chapter 2, “Air Quality (Outdoor [Ambient] and Indoor)”
  • Electric Power Plants—See Chapter 2, “Air Quality (Outdoor [Ambient] and Indoor)”
  • Erosion and Sediment—See Chapter 3, “Built Environment—Healthy Homes and Healthy Communities”; and Chapter 14, “Water Quality and Water Pollution”
  • Environmental Emergencies, Disasters, and Terrorism—See Chapter 5, “Environmental Health Emergencies, Disasters, and Terrorism”
  • Floods—See Chapter 5, “Environmental Health Emergencies, Disasters, and Terrorism”; Chapter 11, “Sewage Disposal Systems”; and Chapter 14, “Water Quality and Water Pollution”
  • Hazardous Wastes—See Chapter 12, “Solid Waste, Hazardous Materials, and Hazardous Waste Management”
  • Hospital and Medical Waste—See Chapter 8, “Healthcare Environment and Infection Control”; and Chapter 12, “Solid Waste, Hazardous Materials, and Hazardous Waste Management”
  • Household Products—See Chapter 12, “Solid Waste, Hazardous Materials, and Hazardous Waste Management”
  • Incinerator Wastes—See Chapter 12, “Solid Wastes, Hazardous Materials, and Hazardous Waste Management”
  • Illicit Discharges—See Chapter 14, “Water Quality and Water Pollution”
  • Industrial Wastes—See Chapter 12, “Solid Waste, Hazardous Materials, and Hazardous Waste Management”
  • Injection Wells—See Chapter 12, “Solid Waste, Hazardous Materials, and Hazardous Waste Management”
  • Invasive Species—See Chapter 14, “Water Quality and Water Pollution”
  • Landfills—See Chapter 12, “Solid Waste, Hazardous Materials, and Hazardous Waste Management”
  • Mining and Extraction of Resources Wastes—See Chapter 12, “Solid Waste, Hazardous Materials, and Hazardous Waste Management”; and Chapter 14, “Water Quality and Water Pollution”
  • Municipal Waste—See Chapter 12, “Solid Waste, Hazardous Materials, and Hazardous Waste Management”; and Chapter 14, “Water Quality and Water Pollution”
  • Natural Sources of Pollution—See Chapter 14, “Water Quality and Water Pollution”
  • Nutrients—See Chapter 2, “Air Quality (Outdoor [Ambient] and Indoor)”; Chapter 11, “Sewage Disposal Systems”; Chapter 12, “Solid Waste, Hazardous Materials, and Hazardous Waste Management”; and Chapter 14, “Water Quality and Water Pollution”
  • On-Site Sewage Disposal—See Chapter 11, “Sewage Disposal Systems”
  • Particulate Matter—See Chapter 2, “Air Quality (Outdoor [Ambient] and Indoor)”
  • Pesticides—See Chapter 9, “Insect Control, Rodent Control, and Pesticides”; Chapter 12, “Solid Waste, Hazardous Materials, and Hazardous Waste Management”; and Chapter 14, “Water Quality and Water Pollution”
  • Pet Waste—See Chapter 14, “Water Quality and Water Pollution”
  • Radioactive Waste—See Chapter 12, “Solid Waste, Hazardous Materials, and Hazardous Waste Management”
  • Runoff and Non-Point Source Pollution—See Chapter 14, “Water Quality and Water Pollution”
  • Runoff from Hazardous Chemicals Spills—See Chapter 5, “Environmental Health Emergencies, Disasters, and Terrorism”; and Chapter 12, “Solid Waste, Hazardous Materials, and Hazardous Waste Management”
  • Sand and Salt Storage—See Chapter 14, “Water Quality and Water Pollution”
  • Schools—See Chapter 4, “Children’s Environmental Health Issues”
  • Sediment—See Chapter 14, “Water Quality and Water Pollution”
  • Sewage Treatment Plants—See Chapter 11, “Sewage Disposal Systems”; and Chapter 12, “Solid Waste, Hazardous Materials, and Hazardous Waste”
  • Surface Impoundments—See Chapter 12, “Solid Waste, Hazardous Materials, and Hazardous Waste Management”; and Chapter 14, “Water Quality and Water Pollution”
  • Temperature (Excessive)—See Chapter 14, “Water Quality and Water Pollution”
  • Toxic Waste Storage and Handling Areas—See Chapter 12, “Solid Waste, Hazardous Materials, and Hazardous Waste Management”
  • Wildfires—See Chapter 5, “Environmental Health Emergencies, Disasters, and Terrorism”
  • Wildlife—See Chapter 14, “Water Quality and Water Pollution”

General Best Practices for Drinking Water Quality

  • • Recognize as a top national and international priority the need for drinking water quality sustainability to meet basic human needs, agricultural needs, and industrial needs. Establish all appropriate laws, rules, and regulations and strictly enforce all existing laws, rules, and regulations as a necessary means of protecting the homeland.
  • • Frequently test groundwater and surface water, especially if there is a concern about contamination, notify the public immediately of the potential hazard, and utilize corrective and preventive measures. Determine if the water meets the maximum contamination levels for microorganisms, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals, and radionuclides and if not, develop and implement a corrective action plan.
  • • Use agricultural water much more efficiently since as much as 60% of it is wasted and never reaches the intended crop. Research and develop the latest technologies for this purpose and maintain the system with great care and appropriate supervision.
  • • Develop and utilize appropriate filtration and disinfection techniques to remove all organisms that can cause waterborne disease.
  • • Immediately investigate all outbreaks of waterborne disease, notify the public of the potential hazard, and utilize corrective and preventive measures.
  • • Immediately investigate all outbreaks of inorganic and organic chemical problems, notify the public of the potential hazard, and utilize corrective and preventive measures.
  • • Establish a system where water-related conflicts will be resolved through formal negotiations thereby avoiding expensive and time-consuming court cases.
  • • Determine if lead is present in water. Homes, especially those built before 1986, may have lead pipes, fixtures, and solder and therefore create a potential problem of lead in the drinking water which is especially problematic for babies and young children. This source plus the consumption of lead-based paint, dust, etc. can cause lead blood levels which cause lead poisoning.
  • • Dug wells are not recommended for use for providing a potable water supply because of the large number of potential contaminants that may enter the water table.
  • • Specific Best Practices will be discussed below under the private drinking water system and public drinking water system categories.
 
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