Article 17 of the WFD instructs the EU legislator to adopt specific measures to prevent and control groundwater pollution, aimed at achieving the objective of good groundwater chemical status. As mentioned previously, the 1979 Directive on the
- 36 On the extent of the obligation to recover costs see Case C-525/12 Commission v Germany ECLI:EU:C:2014:2202.
- 37 River Basin Management Plans (n 15) 11.
protection of groundwater against pollution caused by certain dangerous substances was repealed by the WFD from 2013. Instead a new Directive 2006/118/EC on the protection of groundwater against pollution and deterioration has been adopted.  It contains criteria for the assessment of good groundwater chemical status, for the identification and reversal, through the programme of measures required by the WFD, of significant and sustained upward trends with respect to concentration of pollutants in groundwater. There are also rules on the definition of so-called starting points for trend reversals. It is specified that the programme of measures established in accordance with the WFD must include, inter alia, all measures necessary to prevent inputs into groundwater of any hazardous substances.