e-HRM outcomes

Researchers have reached to general understandings and conclusions based on the outcomes of the e-HRM activities. For instance, Marler and Fisher (2010) argue that HRM investments help reduce the costs by restructuring HRM operations, advancing efficiency by improving the quality of HRM services, and transforming HRM functions to a strategic business partner. HRM's influence on the efficiency and effectiveness of HRM activities is well captured by Kaur (2013: 37) through reduction of the paper work by increasing data precision and also by reducing excess HRM while preserving the quality of HRM's data. Additionally, because e-HRM provides easy access to HR data and facilitates classifying and reclassifying of data, it also entails a more transparent system. Furthermore, it can be deducted that e-HRM facilitates a more positive organizational culture through a higher internal profile for HR. Among the other advantages are the integral support it provided for the management of human resources and other basic support processes within the company decentralizing the HR tasks.

On the other hand, R^l and Kapp (2012) identify e-HRM outcomes within the framework of value creation as efficiency, effectiveness, or service quality. Similarly, Nivlouei (2014: 151) expresses e-HRM outcomes in her work as (1) high workforce commitment, (2) high competence, (3) cost-effectiveness, and (4) higher congruence. Strohmeier (2007: 21) identifies e-HRM outcomes within the framework of the micro and macro levels. While the micro-level outcomes focus on individual impacts such as user satisfaction or acceptance, macro-level outcomes are classified as operational, relational, and/or transformational. Operational outcomes are related to the efficiency and effectiveness outcomes of e-HRM like cost reduction or lightening administrative workload. Relational outcomes refer to the interaction and network of different actors. The transformational outcomes are motivated by fundamental reorientations of the general scope and the function of HRM that include the capability to contribute to the overall performance of the organization. Thus, the integration of Internet technologies into the HRM processes provided the minimization of costs in all functions of HRM including planning, recruitment, learning and training, performance appraisal, career planning, salary system, industrial relations, and health and safety systems.

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