Evaluating Democratic Innovations: Curing the Democratic Malaise?
The democratic malaiseThe scope and nature of democratic innovationCuring the democratic malaise with democratic innovationsTop-down innovationVertical accountabilityHorizontal accountabilityBottom-up innovationVoting and electionsInformation, consultation and deliberationCo-governanceDirect democracyElectronic democracyAssessing democratic innovationDirect democracy vs representative democracy?The reefs of cognitive incompetenceActivating the inactiveThe diffusion of innovationTrade-offsThe impact of innovationsOverview of the bookNew and old forms of (direct) democracyDeliberative democracyComparing innovationsNotesReferencesI New and old forms of (direct) democracy Implementing popular preferences. Is direct democracy the answer?Pros and cons of direct democracyVarieties of direct democracy: mediated versus unmediated formsCombining direct and representative (programmatic) democracy: an emerging synthesis?Setting parameters for a realistic debate about direct democracyNoteReferencesDirect democracy. The Swiss experienceThe direct-democratic institutions of SwitzerlandDirect-democratic practice: the use of these instruments and their successThe opinion formation and the decision of the citizensConsequences of direct democracyConclusionNotesReferencesEvaluating new vs old forms of citizen engagement and participationAssessing the ‘comparative normative weight’ of the two modesConclusionReferencesII Deliberative democracyDeliberative polling. Reflections on an ideal made practicalRepresentative samplesAttitude changeAvoiding distortions: inequality and polarizationPublic spiritednessKnowledge gainsTo what effect?A more ambitious innovation: Deliberation DayNotesReferencesDeliberative democracy and mini-publicsDeliberative democracy and mini-publicsRandom selectionFacilitationDecision rulesPublicityPopular controlConcluding remarksNotesReferencesDeliberation as an ideal and practice in progressive social movementsConceptual clarifications and theoretical reflectionsDeliberation and democracyDeliberation in contextCommunication practices in selected progressive movementsStudying communicative practices in Global Justice MovementsA conceptual framework for analysing controversiesThe framework of empirical investigationSelected quantitative findingsNotesReferencesIII Comparing innovationsMaking better the citizensRepresentative and direct democracyTown meetingsInitiativesRecallsReferendumsCo-governanceCitizen competenceThe reefs of mass cognitive incompetenceCitizen assemblies and forumsActivating the inactiveElectoral reformE-democracyCo-governanceQuotasThe impact of innovationsConclusionsNotesBibliographyImpacts of democratic innovations in EuropeDemocratic innovation - use of the term and its meaning in this studyWhich innovations?How to measure the impacts of participatory innovations on the quality of democracy - the frameworkDemocratic processEffectivenessCivic educationEvaluating participatory innovations - exemplifying the frameworkParticipatory innovations in Europe - common trends and specific patternsDirect democracyCo-governanceConsultative-discursive proceduresDiscussion, outlook and some concluding remarksNotesReferencesWhen democratic innovations let the people decideCo-governance innovations and representative democracy: a new division of political labour?Participatory budgeting: empowered urban democracyThe Citizens’ Assembly model: mixing mini-public and direct democracyCommunity organizing, neighbourhood development and decentralized planning: sectoral co-governanceActivating the inactive and the marginalizedLearning democracy: how citizens become competent by participatingThe emergence of a new local eliteThe impact of co-governance innovations: how can lay citizens sometimes take better decisions than elites?ConclusionNotesReferencesEmpirical methodsNotesReferences