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  • 1 The Innovation Journal, 11 August, 2001 ( papers/thoughts-innovation.htm).
  • 2 The distinction between bottom-up and top-down innovations corresponds to Smith’s basic categories of innovations designed to engage citizens and those designed to change institutions (Smith 2005: 2).
  • 3 For other general accounts of democratic innovations see Held and Pollitt 1986; Renn et al. 1995; Saward 2000; Schmitter and Trechsel 2004; Wisse 2006. Reviews of topics within the general field are presented by Budge 1996; OECD 2001; Scarrow 2001; LeDuc 2003; Catt and Murphy 2003; Gibson et al. 2004; Delli Carpini et al. 2004; Kriesi 2005; Zittel and Fuchs 2007; Margolis 2007: 765-82; and the two special issues of Acta Politica 2005 on empirical approaches to deliberative democracy.
  • 4 For a version of the argument in its most recent guise see Caplan 2007. A recent discussion of the controversy is in Kuklinski and Peyton 2009: 45-64.


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