National war literature
An important role was played by the abundant national literature about this conflict, as can be assessed by the four war bibliographies published between 1920 and 1926: Elementos para a bibliografia medica da Grande Guerra [Elements for the medical bibliography of the Great War] (1920) by the medical doctor Antonio de Azevedo; Esbogo duma bibliografia portuguesa da Grande Guerra [Outline of a Portuguese bibliography of the Great War] (1922) by Nuno Beja; Bibliografia da Grande Guerra (resenha das publicagoes portuguesas) [Bibliography of the Great War (list of the Portuguese publications)] (1922) by Colonel Vitoriano Jose Cesar, and Notas subsidiarias para uma bibliografia portuguesa da Grande Guerra [Subsidiary notes for a Portuguese bibliography of the Great War] (1926) by Captain Jose Brandao. The titles included in these bibliographies relate to historical/mili- tary studies or essays, propaganda publications, speeches, etc. Narratives consist mainly of memoirs, descriptions of lived episodes. Fictional narratives are scarce. Despite their different natures, all the texts have a common purpose: they glorify the heroism, the spirit of self-sacrifice and self-denial of the Portuguese soldiers who fought both in Europe and in Africa.
In the first half of the 20th century, Portuguese war literature was published between 1914 (A Guerra. Notas e du.vidas [The war. Notes and doubts]) by Basilio Teles and 1936 (Soldados valentes [Brave soldiers]) by Captain Jose R. da Silva. However, it was in 1919 that the largest number of publications was produced (21 titles), whilst in 1918 and 1920 nine and seven titles respectively were published. Between 1927 and 1936 only one publication per year could be found.