Marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning : frameworks, methodologies, and integration

Marine biodiversity: its past development, present status, and future threatsIntroductionWhat is biodiversity?Comparing marine and terrestrial biodiversityThe rise of marine biodiversityThe distribution of marine biodiversityHuman impacts on marine biodiversityThe relationship between global climate and marine biodiversityCould marine biodiversity be facing large-scale climate-induced extinction?Additional impacts of CO2 on the marine environmentHypoxia and 'dead zones'SummaryReferencesBiodiversity in the context of ecosystem functionHistorical development of the conceptBiological diversity—meaning and measurementBiodiversity in the context of functionConclusionsReferencesEcosystem function and co-evolution of terminology in marine science and managementIntroductionWhat's in a name? Ecosystem functionEcosystem function definedMeasuring ecosystem functionEcological terms and the co-evolutionary modelCo-evolution, policy drivers, and opportunitiesConclusionsReferencesEcological consequences of declining biodiversity: a biodiversity-ecosystem function (BEF) framework for marine systemsThe significance of marine biological diversitySignificanceA three-point framework for marine biodiversityMarine biodiversity and ecosystem functionDaunting scalesMarine biodiversityMarine microbesMacrobial diversityMarine ecosystem functioningMarine biotic impoverishmentMarine BEF findingsThe fundamental marine BEF relationship in abstractionWhere's the inflection point?The BEF curve for marine systemsSynthesisA simple but telling marine BEF frameworkRemember the humongous multipliersFuture directionsConclusionsReferencesLessons from the fossil record: the Ediacaran radiation, the Cambrian radiation, and the end-Permian mass extinctionIntroductionStrengths and limitations of the geological recordEdiacaran ecosystemsProductivity-biodiversity relationshipInfluence of bioturbation on ecosystem functioningSpecies richness-functional diversity relationshipCambrian ecosystemsProductivity-biodiversity relationshipInfluence of bioturbation on ecosystem functioningSpecies richness-functional diversity relationshipThe end-Permian mass extinction and its aftermathEnvironmental changes during the late Paleozoic to early MesozoicPermian-Triassic marine nutrient levels and primary productivityProductivity-biodiversity-biomass relationshipDiscussionConclusionsReferencesThe analysis of biodiversity-ecosystem function experiments: partitioning richness and density-dependent effectsIntroductionPartitioning richness and abundance effectsEmpirical exampleExperimental layoutFitting the mixed-effect model and evaluating contrastsResultsConclusionsReferencesThe importance of body size, abundance, and food-web structure for ecosystem functioningIntroductionHistorical context and the evolution of an ideaIntegrating body mass, abundance, and food-web structure into biodiversity and ecosystem functioning studiesThe relevance of body mass to biodiversity-ecosystem functioning researchAbundance, body mass, and species diversity patternsConclusionsReferencesEffects of biodiversity-environment conditions on the interpretation of biodiversity-function relationsIntroductionMethods of analysisCompilation of publicationsCalculation of effect sizesExtraction of dataStatistical AnalysisAre alternative drivers of change more important than species richness for ecosystem properties?Summary of studies focusing on relationship between species richness and ecosystem propertiesEffects of species richness and/or additional drivers of change on ecosystem propertiesDistinguishing the effects of biodiversity, the abiotic and/or biotic environment on ecosystem propertiesConclusionsReferencesExtending the approaches of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning to the deep oceanDeep-sea ecosystems: characteristics, biodiversity, and functioningApproaches to the investigation of deep-sea biodiversity and ecosystem functioningBiodiversity metricsFunctional diversityDeep-sea ecosystem functioningVariables used for measuring ecosystem efficiencyRelationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in the deep seaRelationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in different deep-sea ecosystemsConclusions and perspectivesReferencesIncorporating extinction risk and realistic biodiversity futures: implementation of trait-based extinction scenariosIntroductionHow to implement non-random extinction scenariosCase study: implications of regional biodiversity loss on carbon cycling in the shelf sea sediments of the North SeaStudy sites and data collectionBenthic bioturbation characterizationModellingEstimating non-linear changes in ecosystem functioningResults and discussionConclusions and recommendationsReferencesBiodiversity and ecosystem functioning: an ecosystem-level approachThe need to work at seascape scalesBuilding a credible evidence baseCase study 1: The Ythan estuary, ScotlandBiodiversity in the two periodsEcological functioning in the two periodsCase study 2: Hawaii and the northern Line Islands, central PacificHawaiiNorthern Line IslandsEffects of fishing on fish assemblage structureHawaiiNorthern Line IslandsImplications for ecosystem functionConclusionsReferencesMultitrophic biodiversity and the responses of marine ecosystems to global changeIntroductionHow and why biodiversity is changing in oceans and estuariesLessons learned: different designs for different questionsBiodiversity and ecosystem functioning in the AnthropoceneReferencesReality check: issues of scale and abstraction in biodiversity research, and potential solutionsIntroductionAt which spatial and temporal scales have most biodiversity-ecosystem function (BEF) studies been conducted to date?What important ecological processes or patterns may be lost in abstracting BEF experimental systems from natural ecosystems?Does the reduced temporal/spatial scale or compromised ecological realism of marine BEF studies affect our ability to extrapolate results to other systems?Relative merits of different approaches to overcoming limitations of BEF studiesEmpirical research to elucidate ecological conceptsEmpirical research for direct application to management/conservationConclusionsReferencesWhy bother going outside: the role of observational studies in understanding biodiversity-ecosystem function relationshipsThe role of observation in the design, execution, and interpretation of BEF relationshipsThe heterogeneous nature of seafloor landscapesObserving the nature of functionsScaling laws and relevance to BEFA more integrative approach to empirical research in biodiversity- ecosystem function studiesReferencesImplementing an ecosystem approach: predicting and safeguarding marine biodiversity futuresIntroductionTaking an ecosystem approachEcosystem services, function, and biodiversityTaking a systems perspectiveLinking ecology and economicsAn economic framework for ecosystem servicesValuation of ecosystem servicesValuation methodsA framework for implementing an ecosystem approach(i) The decision context(ii) Stakeholder interests(iii) Policy and governance analyses(iv) Assessing social-ecological systems(v) Modelling alternative futures(vi) Decision support(vii) Marine monitoring, implementation, and impact assessmentChallenges for the futureScience needsPolicy needsConclusionsReferences
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