About the Editors and Contributors

James O. Bates is a career civil servant in Buffalo, New York, who works in the area of community planning and development. He is also adjunct faculty at the State University of New York at Buffalo. His current research focuses on microenterprise development and community leadership practices. Bates has recently published on teaching public leadership and change.

Timothy Bates is Distinguished Professor of Economics at Wayne State University . Prior to his Wayne State appointment, he was professor of policy analysis and chair of the graduate program of urban policy analysis at the New School for Social Research. Bates is the author of five books on urban economic development issues, the most recent of which is Race, Self-Employment, and Upward Mobility, published by Johns Hopkins University Press.

Michael Berry joined the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago's Consumer and Community Affairs division in 1995 as a researcher and special project leader. He now manages the division's Emerging Issues unit and serves as managing editor of the division's economic development publication, Profitwise. Prior to joining the Fed, from 1987 to 1995 Berry worked for RESCORP, a real estate development and consulting organization specializing in urban revitalization, heading its market research unit, and from 1985 to 1987 for the Balcor Company, an investment banking subsidiary of American Express, in the investment research group. Berry holds a BA in political science from Susquehanna University, and an MBA from DePaul University.

Brenda Bratton Blom, JD, PhD, is director of clinical law programs at the University of Maryland School of Law. She received her BA in 1989 and JD in 1993 from the University of Baltimore, her MA in policy science in 1993, and her PhD in legal policy in 2002 from the University of Maryland-Baltimore County. Blom worked in public interest law firms after graduating from law school first in the Community Law Center, then as executive director of the Empowerment Legal Services Program. She is chair of the National Law School Consortium Project and serves on the boards of the American Bar Association Forum on Affordable

Housing and Community Development's Legal Educator's Committee, Civil Justice Inc., Maryland Legal Assistance Network, and ABA's Advisory Committee on the Delivery of Legal Services.

Rene Bryce-Laporte is the community-based financial education specialist in the Pennsylvania Office of Financial Education, which seeks to increase the availability and quality of financial education in Pennsylvania schools, communities, and workplaces. Bryce-Laporte is a graduate of Columbia University and the UCLA School of Law.

Terry F. Buss is a project director at the National Academy of Public Administration in Washington, DC. He earned his PhD in political science at Ohio State University. He has held senior policy analyst and adviser positions at the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, World Bank, Congressional Research Service, and Council of Governor's Policy Advisors. He has also served as director of the School of Policy and Management at Florida International University in Miami, chair of public management at Florida International University in Miami, chair of public management at the Sawyer School of Business at Suffolk University, and director of research centers and graduate programs at Ohio State, Youngstown State, and Akron Universities. Buss has published twelve books and nearly three hundred professional articles on many topics within the field of public policy.

Yoel Camayd-Freixas is professor and chairman of the MA and PhD programs in policy and founding director of the Applied Research Center in CED at the School of Community Economic Development, Southern New Hampshire University. Camayd-Freixas is a board member of the Nellie Mae Educational Foundation, Laborers-AGC union national worker training program, and an elected member of the University Senate. His interests include strategic management, economic development, and applied research methods.

Edward J. Dodson retired early in 2005 from the Housing and Community Development division of Fannie Mae, where he was a senior business manager. His professional experience spans over three decades in commercial banking, mortgage lending, and community development. For over twenty-five years, he was on the faculty of the Henry George School of Social Science, and in 1997 he established an Internet-based education and research project, the School of Cooperative Individualism. Dodson is a graduate of Shippensburg and Temple Universities and the author of a three-volume treatise, The Discovery of First Principles.

Annie Donovan is chief operating officer of NCB Capital Impact, responsible for innovative community lending, expert technical assistance, strategy fonnation, product innovation, and policy development. She has been with NCB Capital Impact since 1993 and has been working in the field of community and cooperative development for twenty years, including service in the U.S. Peace Corps. Donovan currently serves on the board of directors for New Markets Tax Credit Coalition, Community Reinvestment Fund, H Street Community Market, CoopMetrics, Inc., and Capitol Hill Day School. She serves on advisory committees for LISC, Coastal Enterprises, Charter School Development Corporation, and Wall Street Without Walls. Donovan has an undergraduate degree in economics and an MBA in finance.

Donna Fabiani has fifteen years of experience in the community development finance field. She is the executive vice president for knowledge sharing at Opportunity Finance Network. Previous positions include research manager at the U.S. Treasury Department's CDFI Fund and director of F1NCA USA, a microenterprise finance program in Washington, D.C. Fabiani spent six years doing international development for Catholic Relief Services. She holds an MPP from the Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton University and a BA from Colby College.

Ben Goodwin is the senior grant writer for Southern Financial Partners, the flagship nonprofit affiliate of Southern Bancorp. Southern Bancorp is a $500 million rural development bank holding company and the nation's largest rural development bank. Since joining Southern in January 2006, Goodwin has successfully raised over $20 million in grant funding for projects conducted by each of Southern's three nonprofit affiliates, ranging from affordable housing development to development lending, workforce development, small business support, public policy advocacy, and asset-building services such as matched-savings accounts. He received a BA in mathematics from Hendrix College in 2001 and a BA in politics, philosophy, and economics from Oxford University in 2003.

Lisa A. Hagerman is a doctoral candidate in economic geography at the University of Oxford researching public pension fund investment in urban revitalization. Before starting her research at Oxford, Hagerman worked in regional public-private partnerships as vice president of Economic Innovation International, Boston, a consulting firm that builds privately capitalized community equity funds. Prior to her consulting work, Hagerman was with Wells Fargo Bank, San Francisco, as assistant vice president of government relations. She worked for Citibank, New York, for seven years, marketing transactional banking products to banks in Latin America as assistant vice president in the Latin American Marketing Division. Hagerman received her BA from Bucknell University and her MA in political science, with a concentration in transatlantic studies, from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Tessa Hebb is a senior research associate at the Labor and Worklife Program, Harvard University, and the Oxford University Centre for the Environment. Hebb is researching the role of U.S. public-sector pension funds and urban revitalization as the lead investigator on a three-year Rockefeller and Ford Foundation grant. Her doctoral work at Oxford examines the impact pension fund corporate engagement has on the corporate governance, social, and environmental standards of firm behavior. A Clarendon Scholar at Oxford University, Hebb received the prestigious William E. Taylor Fellowship (2003) from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, Government of Canada, and is also a recipient of the York University Schulich School of Business National Research in Financial Services and Public Policy Scholarship (Canada). Hebb is also the director of the Carleton Centre for Community Innovation (3ci), Carleton University, Canada, where her work focuses on the financial and nonfinancial impact of pension fund economically targeted investment in Canada.

Hilary Hunt was appointed director of the Pennsylvania Office of Financial Education in April 2004 by Governor Edward G. Rendell, where she oversees initiatives to increase the availability and quality of financial education in Pennsylvania's school, communities, and workplaces. She currently serves as president of the PA Jump Start Coalition and is a member of the board of directors of Junior Achievement of Central Pennsylvania. She has served the educational community as an administrator, teacher, and advocate for financial education for ten years. Hunt holds a degree in mathematics from the College of William and Mary .

Dan Immergluck is associate professor in the City and Regional Planning Program at Georgia Institute of Technology. He has authored two books and dozens of studies on community and economic development, real estate and development finance, neighborhood change, and related topics. His research has been published in Urban Affairs Review, Housing Policy Debate, Economic Geography, Economic Development Quarterly, Urban Studies, and other journals. His most recent book is Credit to the Community: Community Reinvestment and Fair Lending Policy in the U.S. He has received funding from the MacArthur Foundation, the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, the Aspen Institute, and other organizations. Immergluck has an MPP from the University of Michigan and a PhD in urban planning and policy from the University of Illinois at Chicago.

Gerald Karush is professor of computer information systems at Southern New Hampshire University, and a senior research fellow at the Applied Research Center in CED, where he is involved in several research studies. Karush's principal areas of experience include computer technology, economic development, demography, and market and evaluation research.

Richard Koenig is a research associate at the Applied Research Center and doctoral candidate in the School of Community Development at Southern New Hampshire University. He holds an MCP in urban planning from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He recently started his own community development consulting Ann in Detroit. Formerly, Koenig served as CEO of the Housing Opportunity Development Corporation, serving Chicago's northern suburbs where he developed two hundred units of affordable housing.

T. Michael Lengyel is a community development specialist with the City of San Diego's City Planning and Community Investment Department, where he comanages three small business revolving loan funds and serves as a community resource for federal, state, and local financing programs for affordable housing and economic development projects. Lengyel has an MBA in finance and an MS in taxation from San Diego State University and is a certified public accountant. In 2004, the City of San Diego's Business Finance Program was awarded the federal Economic Development Administration's prestigious Excellence in Urban Economic Development Award.

Jane F. Morgan, president of the JEM Consulting Group, is a community planning and program evaluation consultant. As a planner, Morgan works primarily in the metropolitan Detroit area with municipalities, community development organizations, and foundations conducting research while facilitating the development of plans to resolve issues facing urban communities. Morgan has worked with a wide range of organizations and institutions, primarily in the metropolitan Detroit area. Through the JEM Consulting Group, she also provides technical assistance to community-based nonprofit groups through intermediary organizations. Morgan holds an MPA from the LBJ School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas and has completed coursework toward a PhD in urban and regional planning at the University of Michigan.

Kirsten Moy is the director of the Economic Opportunities Program (EOP) at the Aspen Institute. She came to the Institute after serving as project director for the Community Development Innovation and Infrastructure Initiative, a national research project on the future of community development and community development finance. The initiative was incubated at the John D. and Catherine T . MacArthur Foundation in 1998 when Moy was a Distinguished Visitor at the foundation. Previously, Moy served as the first director of the CDFI Fund in the U.S. Department of the Treasury. Before joining the Treasury Department, she was a senior vice president and portfolio manager at Equitable Real Estate Investment Management in New York City, where she was responsible for designing investment products to enable institutional investors to invest in affordable housing and other community and economic development projects. Her background includes six years as vice president in charge of the Social Initiative Investment Department at the Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States; serving as a program investment officer with the Ford Foundation; and positions as a management analyst at Equitable and Nabisco, Inc. Moy holds an MS in operations research from the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn and a BS in mathematics from the University of Detroit.

Saurabh Narain is chief fund advisor to National Community Investment Fund (NCIF; ncif.org) and senior managing director at ShoreBank Corporation ($2 billion bank holding company; sbk.com). Narain has had extensive experience in capital markets and risk management, having worked at Bank of America for almost seventeen years in both Asia and the United States. Over the years, he has worked in almost ten countries in Asia and the United States and in dealing with financial institutions, global multinational corporations, and governments. He has experience in raising capital from private and public markets and in client risk-management advisory work across risk classes. He serves on the boards of CDFI Coalition and NMTC Coalition and is a member of the Steering Committee of the Professional Risk Managers' International Association, Chicago Chapter (prmia.org). Narain previously served as president of the Board of the Health Clinic of the Asian Human Services, the Council of the United Way of Metropolitan Chicago, the Board of FpML.org, and the Board of the North Asia Steering Committee for International Swaps and Derivatives Association (1999). Narain is a regular speaker at industry conferences. He has a BA (Honours) in economics from University of Delhi and an MBA (1985) from the Indian Institute of Management in Ahmedabad, India.

Melissa Nemon is a doctoral student at the School of Community Economic Development, Southern New Hampshire University, and a research assistant at the Applied Research Center in CED, where she is also involved in studies on small business and community development. Her research interests include sustainable development, employment and labor, and social justice. Nemon is active in the Society for Community Research and Action and the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues.

Robin Newberger is a business economist in the Consumer Issues Research Unit of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. Newberger holds a BA from Columbia University and an MA in public policy from the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. She is the author of several articles and papers published by the Chicago Fed, including “Financial Access for Immigrants: Lessons from Diverse Perspectives” (2006), “Islamic Finance in the United States: A Small but Growing Industry” (2005), “Savings Account Usage by Low- and Moderate-Income People in the Chicago Metropolitan Area” (2004), and “Financial Institutions as Stakeholders in Individual Development Accounts” (2002). Before working for the Chicago Fed, Newberger lived in Quito, Ecuador, and wrote for the Economist Intelligence Unit. Newberger holds a chartered financial analyst designation.

Lynda Petersen earned her MPA from the Evans School of Public Affairs at the University of Washington. She focused her studies on social policy and was the graduate assistant to former Seattle Mayor Norman B. Rice. Petersen currently prepares briefing materials for Seattle Mayor Greg Nickels, works with community groups and constituents on their complaints and concerns, and assists staff in all community outreach efforts to Seattle's neighborhoods and businesses. Petersen believes the two years of direct service she gained with AmeriCorps prior to graduate school helped shape her views on our society and the world.

David Porteous is the director of Boston-based consultancy firm Bankable Frontier Associates LLC. The firm specializes in providing strategic advice to public and private entities on financial sector and financial product development. Particular practice focus areas include the application of technology to increasing financial access, structured housing finance, and the evaluation of public and private entities and programs. Before locating to Boston, Porteous was active in leadership roles within the development finance sector in South Africa, including managing a public housing development finance institution, in charge of strategy for South Africa's largest microfinance banking group, African Bank Investments; and establishing FinMark Trust as a pro-poor market catalyst in the financial sector of southern Africa. Porteous has a bachelor's degree in communication from the University of Cape Town, a master's degree in philosophy from Cambridge University, and a PhD in economics from Yale University.

Gregory A. Ratliff is currently a senior Fellow at the Aspen Institute working with the Economic Opportunities Program. In this capacity, he has been one of the principal investigators for a research project exploring the scalability of community development financial institutions. In addition, he has been an advisor to the Annie E. Casey Foundation as it establishes a social investment program. Ratliff came to Aspen from the Mac Arthur Foundation, which he joined in April 1991 as a program officer in the area of program-related investments. In 1996, he was promoted to program director of the Access to Economic Opportunity interest area within the Program on Human and Community Development. He was also responsible for program design and grant development focused on questions of economic inequality and access to opportunity. Before joining the Foundation, Ratliff was active in social investing with the ShoreBank Corporation in Chicago. He was responsible for screening the bank's bond portfolio and served as a commercial lender providing small- and medium-sized businesses with SBA loans. Ratliff holds a BA from the University of California, Los Angeles, an MBA from Northeastern University, and has completed graduate work at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the Department of Urban Studies.

F. Stevens Redburn is former chief of the Housing Branch at the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). He joined OMB in 1986. He earned his PhD in political science from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Redburn's scholarly contributions include coauthoring a book, Responding to America's Homeless, that helped shape the nation's understanding of a complex problem by delineating subgroups within the homeless population and differences in approaches to service delivery required for each group. He has published twice in Public Administration Review, once on models for integrated delivery of human services and again on how to account for the cost of insurance programs in the federal budget. His federal service began in 1979 at HUD, where he led field studies in the Office of Policy Development and Research to evaluate major programs. His most recent book is a collection of essays, co-edited with Terry Buss, Public Policies for Distressed Communities Revisited. Redburn is an elected fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration.

Norman Rice is currently serving a three-year term as a Distinguished Practitioner- in-Residence at the University of Washington's Evans School of Public Affairs and is heading up the Civic Engagement in the 21st Century project. The project will involve working closely with professors, students, and civic and community leaders to focus seminars on how to apply the principles of civic engagement in addressing critical issues affecting the Puget Sound region. The project will draw on Rice's own expertise as well as that of other local and national leaders who have been successful at sustaining citizen involvement in resolving tough policy questions. Rice received his MPA from the University of Washington and went on to build an illustrious career that included three terms as a member of the Seattle City Council and two very successful terms as mayor of Seattle. From 1998 to 2004, he served as president and CEO of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Seattle and, until recently, as vice chairman of Capital Access, LLC, an investment banking firm that specializes in strengthening communities and creating a sustainable environment.

Alicia Robb is a research associate at the University of California, Santa Cruz. She is also the founder and president of the Foundation for Sustainable Development, an international grassroots community development organization working in eight countries throughout Latin America, Africa, and Asia. She previously worked as a staff economist for an economic consulting firm and as an economist for the Office of Economic Research in the Small Business Administration and for the Division of Research and Statistics at the Federal Reserve Board of Governors. Her main research interests are minority entrepreneurship, small business lending, community development, and microfinance. She has taught economic development courses at universities in the Washington, D.C., and San Francisco Bay areas, as well as abroad in three countries. Robb graduated summa cum laude in economics and multinational organizational studies from St. Mary's University in San Antonio, Texas. She received her PhD in economics from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, specializing in economic development and econometrics.

Michael Rowett is research and communications manager for Southern Good Faith Fund's Public Policy Program. He previously served as director of communications for the Democratic Party of Arkansas and, before that, spent nine years in journalism as a reporter for Arkansas' two largest daily newspapers. He covered politics and government for the Arkansas Democrat-Gazette and government, business, and education for the Southwest Times Record in Fort Smith. Rowett is a cum laude graduate of Texas Christian University in Fort Worth, Texas, where he earned a bachelor's degree in journalism.

Julia Sass Rubin joined the faculty of the Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy at Rutgers University in 2003 as an assistant professor of public policy. She spent the prior year as a postdoctoral fellow at the Alfred A. Taubman Center for Public Policy at Brown University. Rubin has advised a number of organizations in the area of developmental finance, including the U.S. Small Business Administration, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Appalachian Regional Commission, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation, and the New Jersey Redevelopment Authority. Previously, she consulted for McKinsey & Company, worked in brand management for the Procter & Gamble and Eastman Kodak companies, and taught strategic management and marketing at Assumption University in Bangkok, Thailand, as a Henry Luce Scholar. Rubin holds a PhD in organizational behavior from Harvard.

William Schweke is vice president of learning and innovation at CFED (formerly, the Corporation for Enterprise Development) and was president of Interchange, a Ann specializing in public policy exchange between the United States and Europe. A graduate of the University of Texas at Austin, he is a specialist in development finance, plant closings, small and community business, environmentally compatible development, and local development planning. He has published extensively in the field of community development. In 2004, Schweke delivered the Werner Sichel Lecture at Western Michigan University, entitled, “Getting Beyond Argument and Invective: Can We Bridge the Gap between Free and Fair Trade Advocates?" He was awarded the North Carolina Defender of Justice Award for Advocacy and Policy Research by the N.C. Justice and Community Development Center.

Colin D. Sears is currently economic development manager of the City of Portland's Target Industry Cluster Program at the Portland Development Commission. Before moving to Portland, Oregon, in 1999, Sears worked as a project director at Davidson-Peterson Associates in Maine, where he directed economic research projects for the Bermuda Department of Tourism, the State of Wisconsin, and Duchess County, New York. Sears has skills and experience in applied economic development, strategic planning, and economic impact assessment and research. He is currently leading the development of an economic development strategy for the City of Portland, Oregon.

David W. Sears is currently acting assistant deputy administrator for Cooperative Programs at the U.S. Department of Agriculture. In recent years, he has served as the acting director of the Empowerment Programs Division at USDA and was director of the National Rural Development Partnership's national office. Earlier in his career, he was with USDA's Economic Research Service and with the Manufacturing Extension Partnership at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Sears has skills and experience in strategic management, policy assessment, program evaluation, professional development, and research. He has written numerous publications on economic development and community development topics, with an emphasis on rural communities. His edited book, Rural Development Strategies, won the Wildavsky Award. He was senior author of Gearing Up for Success, a book aimed at state economic development policymakers.

Joshua Silver, vice president of research and policy at the National Community Reinvestment Coalition, develops NCRC's policy positions and produces various research studies with fifteen years of experience in the housing and community development field. He has written NCRC testimony submitted to the Senate and House Banking Committees on topics including financial modernization, predatory lending, and the effectiveness of the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA). In his technical advisory role, Silver helps community organizations and local public agencies devise neighborhood reinvestment strategies and interpret HMDA and CRA data on lending activity. He also writes and edits fact sheets and technical manuals. Major NCRC studies produced under Silver's direction include the Broken Credit System and Access to Capital and Credit for Small Businesses in Appalachia. At the Urban Institute, Silver specialized in housing market analysis and program evaluation. Silver holds an MPA from the LB J School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas in Austin and earned a bachelor's degree in economics from Columbia University in New York City. He lives in Bethesda, Maryland, with his wife and daughter.

Anna Steiger is a senior research associate in the Public and Community Affairs Department at the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. Her primary areas of research include community development finance and asset-building programs and policies for low- and moderate-income individuals and families. She has also worked in international business and microfinance and served as an emerging markets analyst at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Steiger holds an MPP from the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University and a BA in economics from Barnard College at Columbia University.

Ben Steinberg is president of Southern Financial Partners, a Southern Bancorp affiliate, which provides both comprehensive community development services in Arkansas as well as development lending in Arkansas and Mississippi. The comprehensive community development initiative, known as the Delta Bridge Project, is focused on Phillips County, Arkansas, and is delivering tangible changes to the community. Before joining Southern, Steinberg accumulated over ten years of international development experience, including serving as the senior executive for microfmance institutions in Kazakhstan, Armenia, and Tanzania. In Tanzania, the microfinance program became financially sustainable and served over 27,000 customers at the time of his departure. Steinberg has an MPA from the Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton University. He graduated with a BA from the University of California at Davis in economics and international relations.

Hannah Thomas is the Oskowitz Fellow at the Heller School at Brandeis University . She is a doctoral student focusing on questions of assets and inequality, specifically interested in building and protecting wealth for low-income individuals. Thomas was formerly employed at Coastal Enterprises, Inc., a nationally recognized community development organization and CDFI in Maine. At CEI, she helped develop policy platforms around abusive forms of credit and was coauthor of a report on predatory mortgage lending in Maine. She also helped manage data analysis and collation for the organization and performed evaluations for several programs, including a workforce development project in central western Maine for the Department of Labor. Thomas holds an MA from Cambridge University in Geography.

Kate Titford is a second-year student at the University of Maryland School of Law.

Thomas J. Vicino is assistant professor in the School of Urban and Public Affairs at University of Texas at Arlington. He holds a PhD in public policy from the University of Maryland Graduate School, Baltimore. His research focuses on urban development and politics and suburban decline. His recent work has appeared in

Urban Studies, Urban Geography, and Encyclopedia of American Urban History. Vicino's research has also been funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Elisabeth Walden is a third-year student at the University of Maryland School of Law.