The sensory ecology of birds

Birds' Eye ViewsMetaphor and RealityMany Birds, Many ViewsThe Tuning of SensesEpicurus, Sextus, and the ScepticsSensory EcologyVisionThe Emergence of VisionWhat Eyes DoOptimal EyesA Fundamental Trade-off in VisionThe Primacy of Vision in BirdsSources of Variation in Camera EyesThe Basic Functional ComponentsOptical Systems of Camera EyesThe Image-analysing SystemVariation of Image AnalysisVariations in the Distributions of Receptors in a Single EyeVariation of Optical StructureVariation of Visual FieldsComparing Doves and Shearwaters: An Example of the Visual Ecology of Optical and Retinal StructuresMeasures of Spatial ResolutionAcuityContrast SensitivityConclusion: Vision in BirdsHearing and OlfactionHearingThe Sound StimulusThe Hearing System of BirdsHearing SensitivityLocating SoundsDetermination of sound directionDetermination of sound distance (sound ranging)Echolocation (active SONAR)Conclusion: Hearing in BirdsOlfactionOrganization of the Olfactory Systems of BirdsThe Importance of Olfaction and Olfactory Bulb SizeOlfactory Information and Foraging for Specific ItemsDetection of Foraging Locations using OlfactionBody Odours and SemiochemicalsOdour-based recognition of speciesOdour-based recognition of individualsOdour-based recognition of individual quality and mate choiceOdours and NestsConclusion: Smell in BirdsTouch, Taste, and MagnetoreceptionTouch or Somatic SensitivitySomatic SensitivitiesMechanoreceptionHerbst corpusclesGrandry corpusclesThermo-sensitive receptorsCutaneous nociceptorsBill Tip OrgansBill tip organs in waterfowlBill tip organs in parrotsBill tip organs in shorebirds, kiwi, and ibisesConclusion: Somatic Sensitivity in BirdsTasteTaste BudsTaste Genes and Taste ReceptorsRelative Numbers of Taste ReceptorsTaste Categories in BirdsSweetUmamiBitterCalciumSaltSourFatTaste and Foraging in ShorebirdsConclusion: Taste in BirdsMagnetoreceptionAnimals that Detect the Geomagnetic FieldMagnetic Compass MechanismsDetection of the Geomagnetic FieldThe magnetite model of magnetic field detectionThe radical pair modelConclusion: Magnetoreception in BirdsFrom Senses to Sensory EcologyMaking Sense of the Diversity of Bird SensesBirds in the Dark: Complementary and Partial InformationThe Problem of Night-timeAbsolute Visual Sensitivity and the Challenges of the Nocturnal EnvironmentVisual Sensitivity in Context: In and Out of the WoodsNocturnal BirdsThe Owls' Solutions to NocturnalityThe Oilbirds' Solution to NocturnalityThe Kiwi's Solution to NocturnalityNocturnality in Other BirdsNocturnal ParrotsNightjars, Frogmouths, and PotoosNightjarsFrogmouths and PotoosOccasional NocturnalityOccasional Nocturnal ForagingNocturnal MigrationNight Attendance at NestsConclusion: Birds in the Dark-Complementary and Partial InformationBirds Underwater: A Paucity of InformationThe Underwater ForagersOptical Challenges of Foraging UnderwaterLight Levels and Spectral Challenges of Foraging UnderwaterThe Challenge of Rapidly Changing Light LevelsAquatic Foraging and Nocturnal ForagingTactile Information and Underwater ForagingSolutions to Underwater ForagingCormorantsPenguinsAuksBirds Underwater: A Paucity of InformationWhat Drives Bird Senses?Visual Ecology, Trade-offs, and 'Just-so Stories'Which Tasks Drive the Evolution of Sensory Systems in Birds?Key Tasks and Perceptual Challenges Faced by BirdsFlightForagingPredator detectionReproductionCompeting Tasks and Competing InformationGeneral Characteristics of the Visual Fields of BirdsFunctional Interpretations of the Visual Fields of BirdsThe Key Functions of Bird Visual FieldsControl of Bill Position in ForagingPanoramic VisionDifferences in Visual Fields between Closely Related SpeciesThe Perceptual Demands of Bill Control versus Predator DetectionWhat Is the Function of Binocular Vision in Birds?Binocular Vision in BirdsBinocular field widthVertical extent of binocular fieldsAbolishing binocular visionBinocular field widths, nocturnality, and predationVisual Fields, Eye Size, and Imaging the SunSummary: The Key Drivers of Visual Fields in BirdsBinocular Vision, Optic Flow-fields, and Contralateral VisionSummary: The Drivers of Visual Fields and their Fine TuningWhat Drives Colour Vision in Birds?What Drives Bird Senses?The Sensory Ecology of Collisions and EntrapmentWhy do Flying Birds Collide with Static Objects?Information Available to Flying BirdsColour VisionSpatial ResolutionRelative Depth, Distance, and Time-to-contactFields of ViewComparing Bird and Human Views of their WorldsThe Functions of Lateral Vision in BirdsWhen Birds are Flying in Open Airspace, What are they Doing?Looking but Failing to SeeCan Flying Birds Adjust their Rate of Gain of Visual Information?Are Flying Birds Always Looking Ahead?The Sensory Ecology of CollisionsA Sensory Ecology Perspective on Collision MitigationCollisions with Static HazardsVisual factorsPerceptual factorsDiverting and distracting birdsTailored rather than general solutionsCollisions with Moving Hazards: Aircraft and Wheeled VehiclesManipulating the environmentManipulating the hazardAre vehicles perceived as predators?Entrapment: The Problem of Gillnets and Diving BirdsGillnet Bycatch Bird SpeciesThe Role of Vision in Seabird Gillnet Bycatch SpeciesDistracting Birds from NetsA Sensory Ecology Solution to Gillnet BycatchMaking Nets ConspicuousLighting netsWarning birds of the presence of netsWarning PanelsPatterns on Warning PanelsThe Size of Warning PanelsThe Colour of Warning PanelsThe Detection Distances of Warning PanelsHow Many Panels?Would Warning Panels be Effective?Collisions with GlassMitigation MeasuresPatterns on glass surfacesUV patterns on glassThe Sensory Ecology of Collisions and Entrapment: Conclusions
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