Notes

  • 1. Hankey to Creech Jones, 21 March 1946, CO537/1900, the National Archives of the United Kingdom (TNA).
  • 2. Officer administering the government, British Guiana to Hall, 4 June 1946, CO537/1900, TNA.
  • 3. Cunningham to Hall, 10 September 1946, CO537/1900, TNA.
  • 4. Moore to Hall, 24 June 1946, CO537/1900, TNA.
  • 5. Leatham to Creech Jones, 3 October 1946, CO537/1900, TNA.
  • 6. Woolley to Hall, 9 August 1946, CO537/1900, TNA.
  • 7. David Caute, The Dancer Defects: The Struggle for Cultural Supremacy during the Cold War (Oxford, 2002), p. 29; Michael Share, Where Empires Collided: Russian and Soviet Relations with Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Macao (Hong Kong, 2007), p. 111.
  • 8. Grantham, ‘Report on Communist and Soviet Activities for the six months ending 30th June 1948’, undated [pages missing], enclosed in: Grantham to Creech Jones, 13 August 1948, CO537/3718, TNA; Share, Where Empires Collided, pp. 111-112.
  • 9. Grantham to Creech Jones, 12 March 1948, CO537/3718, TNA.
  • 10. Share, Where Empires Collided, p. 112.
  • 11. John M. Carroll, A Concise History of Hong Kong (Lanham, 2007), p. 142.
  • 12. John Kent, British Imperial Strategy and the Origins of the Cold War, 1944-49 (Leicester, 1993), p. xi; Walter L. Hixson, The Myth of American Diplomacy: National Identity and U.S. Foreign Policy (New Haven, CT, 2008), p. 224.
  • 13. J bid.
  • 14. Crozier, report on the Hong Kong Special Bureau, Education Department, 31 August 1949, CO537/3721, TNA.
  • 15. Alexei Filitov, ‘Victory in the Postwar Era: Despite the Cold War or Because of It?’, in: Michael J. Hogan (ed.), The End of the Cold War: Its Meaning and Implications (Cambridge, 1997), p. 79.
  • 16. Odd Arne Westad, The Global Cold War: Third World Interventions and the Making of Our Times (Cambridge, 2005), p. 1. See also: Niall Ferguson, The War of the World: Twentieth-Century Conflict and the Descent of the West (London, 2006), p. lxxi.
  • 17. Klaus Larres, ‘Britain and the Cold War, 1945-1990’, in: Richard H. Immerman and Petra Goedde (eds), The Oxford Handbook of the Cold War (Oxford, 2013), p. 141.
  • 18. Anne Deighton, ‘Introduction’, in: Anne Deighton (ed.), Britain and the First Cold War (London, 1990), p. 4.
  • 19. Anne Deighton, The Impossible Peace: Britain, the Division of Germany, and the Origins of the Cold War (Oxford, 1990); Michael L. Dockrill and John W. Young, British Foreign Policy, 1945-1956 (Basingstoke, 1989); John Kent and John W. Young, ‘The “Western Union” Concept and British Defence Policy, 1947-1948’, in: Richard Aldrich (ed.), British Intelligence, Strategy and the Cold War (London, 1992); Peter Weiler, ‘British Labour and the Cold War: The Foreign Policy of the Labour Governments, 1945-1951’, The Journal of British Studies, 26/1 (1987); John W. Young, ‘Cold War and Detente with Moscow’, in: John W. Young (ed.), The Foreign Policy ofChurchill’s Peacetime Administration 1951-1955 (Leicester, 1988).
  • 20. For example, see: Ray Merrick, ‘The Russia Committee of the British Foreign Office and the Cold War, 1946-47’, Journal of Contemporary History, 20/3 (1985); Lowell H. Schwartz, Political Warfare against the Kremlin: US and British Propaganda Policy at the Beginning of the Cold War (Basingstoke, 2009); Andrew Defty, Britain, America and AntiCommunist Propaganda, 1945-53: The Information Research Department (London, 2004); Richard Aldrich, ‘Putting Culture into the Cold War: The Cultural Relations Department (CRD) and British Covert Information Warfare’, Intelligence and National Security, 18/2 (2003).
  • 21. Frank Heinlein, British Government Policy and Decolonisation 1945-1963 (London, 2002), p. 106.
  • 22. Antony Best, ‘“We Are Virtually at War with Russia”: Britain and the Cold War in East Asia, 1923-40’, Cold War History, 12/2 (2012), pp. 205-206.
  • 23. John Darwin, After Tamerlane: The Rise and Fall of Global Empires, 1400-2000 (New York, 2008), p. 416.
  • 24. Antoinette Burton, Empire in Question: Reading, Writing, and Teaching British Imperialism (London, 2011), p. 286.
  • 25. Ronald Hyam, ‘Introduction: Perspectives, Policies, and People’, in: Ronald Hyam (ed.), Understanding the British Empire (Cambridge, 2010), p. 37; Norman Miners, Hong Kong under Imperial Rule, 1912-1941 (Oxford, 1987), p. 29.
  • 26. Frank Furedi, Colonial Wars and the Politics of Third World Nationalism (London, 1998), p. 4.
  • 27. Susan Carruthers, Winning Hearts and Minds: British Governments, the Media and Colonial Counter-Insurgency 1944-60 (Leicester, 1995), p. 11.
  • 28. Christine Loh, Underground Front: The Chinese Communist Party in Hong Kong (Hong Kong, 2010), p. 43; Anastasia Yiangou, Cyprus in World War II: Politics and Conflict in the Eastern Mediterranean (London, 2010),

p. 16.

  • 29. Robert Holland, Britain and the Revolt in Cyprus, 1954-1959 (Oxford, 1998), p. 11; Nancy Crawshaw, The Cyprus R.evolt: An Account of the Struggle for Union with Greece (London, 1978), p. 39. The one English- language exception is T. W. Adams, AKEL: The Communist Party ofCyprus (Stanford, CA, 1977). In Greek, pre-1999 studies ofAKEL include Yiannis Lefkis [AKEL party member], The Roots (Limassol, 1984) and Spyros Papageorgiou [EOKA member], AKEL: The Duplicate of KKE (Athens, 1984).
  • 30. Christophoros Christophorou, ‘The Emergence of Modern Politics in Cyprus 1940-1959’, Nicos Peristianis, ‘The Rise of the Left and of the Intra-Ethnic Cleavage’, and Vassilis Protopapas, ‘The Rise of a Bi-Polar Party System, Municipal Elections 1940-1955’, all in: Hubert Faustmann and Nicos Peristianis (eds), Britain in Cyprus: Colonialism and

Post-Colonialism 1878-2006 (Mannheim, 2006); Yiannos Katsourides, The History of the Communist Party in Cyprus: Colonialism, Class and the Cypriot Left (New York, 2014); Alexis Rappas, ‘The Labor Question in Colonial Cyprus, 1936-1941. Political Stakes in a Battle ofDenominations’, International Labour and Working-Class History, 76 (2009); Ioannis D. Stefanidis, Isle of Discord: Nationalism, Imperialism and the Making of the Cyprus Problem (London, 1999); Anastasia Yiangou, Cyprus in World War II: Politics and Conflict in the Eastern Mediterranean (London, 2010).

  • 31. Andreas Panayiotou, ‘Lenin in the Coffee-Shop: The Communist Alternative and Forms of Non-Western Modernity’, Postcolonial Studies, 9/3 (2006).
  • 32. Examples include: Ming K. Chan (ed.), Precarious Balance: Hong Kong between China and Britain (Hong Kong, 1994); David Clayton, Imperialism Revisited: Political and Economic Relations between Britain and China, 1950-54 (Basingstoke, 1997); Malcolm H. Murfett, Hostage on the Yangtze: Britain, China, and the Amethyst Crisis of1949 (Annapolis, MD, 1991); Steve Tsang, Democracy Shelved: Great Britain, China, and Attempts at Constitutional Reform in Hong Kong, 1945-1952 (Hong Kong, 1988).
  • 33. Steve Tsang, ‘Strategy for Survival: The Cold War and Hong Kong’s Policy towards Kuomintang and Chinese Communist Activities in the 1950s’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 25/2 (1997), p. 311.
  • 34. For example: Alan Smart, The Shek Kip Mei Myth: Squatters, Fires and Colonial Rulers in Hong Kong, 1950-1963 (Hong Kong, 2006), p. 80; Leo F. Goodstadt, Profits, Politics and Panics: Hong Kong’s Banks and the Making of a Miracle Economy, 1935-1985 (Hong Kong, 2007), p. 76; Grace Ai-ling Chou, Confucianism, Colonialism, and the Cold War: Chinese Cultural Education at Hong Kong’s New Asia College, 1949-63 (Leiden, 2011), p. 132; Flora L. F. Kan, Hong Kong’s Chinese History Curriculum from 1945: Politics and Identity (Hong Kong, 2007), p. 26; Chi-kwan Mark, Hong Kong and the Cold War: Anglo-American Relations 1949-1957 (Oxford, 2004), pp. 15-16; Suzanne Pepper, Keeping Democracy at Bay: Hong Kong and the Challenge of Chinese Political Reform (Plymouth, 2008), p. 109.
  • 35. This has been recognized, although often as an aside, by a few notable examples. See: David C. Wolf, ‘“To Secure a Convenience”: Britain Recognizes China-1950’, Journal ofContemporary History, 18/2 (1983), p. 304; Loh, Underground Front, p. 75.
 
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