This is the ability to understand what a number represents. A child with difficulties in this area would, for example, be able to write the number ‘seven’, but would not realize that it comes before eight.

Operational functions

This is the ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide. A child with a difficulty in this area would, for example, continue to rely on his fingers for simple calculations. To overcome their problem, such children may devise their own methods for carrying out calculations.

Selection process

This is the ability to select the appropriate arithmetical operation to solve a problem. Children with difficulty in this skill can carry out an operation, such as addition or division, when it is specified, but cannot decide which operation to carry out when given a word problem where the appropriate operation is not specified.

Sequential memory

This is the ability to remember the order of operations required to solve a problem.

Sequential organization

This is the ability to establish numerical order. Children with difficulty in this skill may have problems learning the multiplication tables. This may be related to other difficulties in sequential organization (see Chapter 10).