1) The Islamic Sudanese government in the north sees no objection to killing their own (Christian) population in the South. In the meantime they have split into two countries.

2) The Western world showed that it did not learn anything from the Rwanda massacre. We did not intervene in Darfur. There is not enough oil under the sand.

3) Iran has terrorist camps in the Sudan to cause instability in Egypt.

4) France has long supported the Islamic regime in Khartoum. Now they have changed to the Chinese. The American government supported the Christian guerillas in South Sudan (SPLA).

5) France is losing country after country in Central Africa. The Anglo-American expansion is being checked by China.


1) When you have a quasi-democratic political system where the majority of the 155 million people large population belong to 250 different ethnic groups and live in great poverty, you get continuing despair and chaos. When a handful of people have access to all the easy (oil) money, you get rage.

2) The only thing which is stopping Nigeria from going the same way as Sudan, splitting the country in two, into a northern Islamic state and a southern Christian and Animist state, is the question of how to split the oil revenues.

Somalia, Ethiopia, and the Horn of Africa

1) Somalia is in the hands of the local Taliban, the Shabaab, who are financing their armies of young devotees through piracy. Their influence stretches down along the coast of Kenya and over the border into Ethiopia. Somalia is as frightening as any country gets today. Not even relief workers dare come here anymore.

2) The 62 per cent of Christians who live in Ethiopia are being squeezed from all sides: Islamists in Djibouti (north), Sudan (west), and Somalia (south and east), and border disputes with Eritrea in the north.

3) Islamic extremists are slowly getting a grip on the Horn of Africa.

4) Piracy pays better than fishing, even if it is more of a lottery.

Congo and the Great Lakes region

1) Congo is the crossroads of American and French interest in Africa. The Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) is under French protection, the Democratic Republic, formerly known as Zaire (Kinshasa), is under American influence. In addition there is rebel activity in South Kivu (Rwanda) and in the northeastern corner of the country (Lord's Resistance Army attacks in Uganda).

2) Congo is rich in minerals. It is the biggest producer of cobalt in the world (forty per cent of world share), and a major producer of copper and diamonds. Cobalt is essential for the electronics industry, for the manufacture of batteries, etc.

3) This used to be a region dominated by the interests of Belgium and France. That changed when Belgian mercenaries had Dag Hammarskjold (UN General Secretary) killed during a visit to Northern Rhodesia in 1961. Slowly the old powers were replaced by American and British interests. From their bastions in Rwanda and Uganda the British and Americans are continuing to push French diplomacy out of the Congo, the keystone of French interests in Central Africa.

Figure 13: World map of colonialism at the end of the Second World War in 1945

World map of colonialism at the end of the Second World War in 1945

4) The Hutus are backed by France, the Tutsis by the USA. France has lost Rwanda. Congo will be next. This has been the deadliest battlefield since the Second World War, costing the lives of some 5.4 million people since the 1980s. The Tutsi-dominated RPF, led by former Ugandan intelligence chief Paul Kagame, now president of the Republic of Rwanda, is supported by the USA. His soldiers are conducting a secret war in Kivu Province.

5) Two days before the massacre in Rwanda, Alain Juppé, the French foreign minister at the time, said that a victory by the Tutsi Patriotic Front (RPF) was unacceptable. But ultimately France did nothing to halt the killing of more than half a million Tutsis by the very Hutus they had trained. When the French troops returned home many of them suffered mental breakdowns due to feelings of guilt.

6) The USA supported Laurent-Désiré Kabila when he overthrew Mobutu Sese Seko in 1997. But the senior Kabila was too Marxist for Washington's liking. After he was killed, his son Joseph Kabila became president of the Democratic Republic. The US wanted to replace him with the more loyal Laurent Nkunda, a Congolese Tutsi general. But Nkunda was killing too many innocent civilians. In the end Kagama had to call his dog to heel.

7) The Americans have been trying to take control of the Congo for a long time. When Patrice Lumumba (the first democratically-elected president of Congo) requested Soviet military help, the CIA initiated a secret war in the region. When the CIA caught Lumumba he was put on a plane and sent to his arch-rival Moise Tshombe, who had him executed (see e.g. Stockwell 1978: 10).

8) In Congo the "services spéciaux" continue to support the Hutu militia against the government in Rwanda from bases in Equateur Province (Mbandaka). Hired South African pilots fly in weapons bought in Eastern Europe. France is desperate in East Africa, and has made a series of bad choices "dans la région des grands lacs".

9) Mobutu, who came to power in 1965, turned the Congo into one of the poorest countries in Africa. While in power he amassed an enormous fortune for himself, in gold, diamonds, and dollars, valued at 400 million francs, all deposited in Swiss banks. Chirac and Mobuto had known each other for a long time. Mobuto also supported the RPR election campaign with large donations in the 1980s.

10) In Uganda the USA is trying to defeat the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) led by Joseph Kony, a Christian fundamentalist and a self-righteous crusader.

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