Biology of Plant Volatiles

SECTION I: Chemistry of Plant Volatiles: Practical Approaches to Plant Volatile Collection and AnalysisINTRODUCTIONPLANT VOLATILE SAMPLING TECHNIQUESADSORPTION AND DESORPTION OF VOLATILESGAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION OF VOLATILESVOLATILE DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATIONVOLATILE ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES WITH HIGH TIME RESOLUTIONSPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR BELOWGROUND VOLATILE COLLECTIONSPECIFIC CONSIDERATIONS IN AQUATIC SYSTEMSCONCLUSIONS: Analysis of Internal Pools of Plant VolatilesINTRODUCTIONANALYSIS OF POOLED VOLATILESCOMPOSITIONAL CHANGES IN POOLED AND RELEASED PLANT VOLATILESAPPLICATIONS OF VOLATILE PROFILES TO METABOLOMICS STUDIESCONCLUSION: Bioassay-Guided Semiochemical Discovery in Volatile-Mediated Specialized Plant–Pollinator Interactions with a Practical Guide to Fast-Track ProgressINTRODUCTIONA BRIEF HISTORY OF CHEMICAL DISCOVERY IN SEXUALLY DECEPTIVE EUROPEAN AND AUSTRALIAN ORCHIDSKEY CONSIDERATIONS FOR SUCCESSFUL CHEMICAL DISCOVERYBIOLOGICAL CHALLENGESCHEMICAL CHALLENGESCONCLUSION: The Chemical Diversity of Floral ScentINTRODUCTIONHOW DIVERSE ARE FLORAL SCENTS?Chemical Compound Classes in Floral ScentsFunctional Groups of Floral Scent CompoundsStereochemistry of Floral Scent CompoundsVARIATION IN FLORAL SCENT COMPOSITIONComposition and Amount of Emitted Floral ScentsCo-occurrence of Individual Compounds in Floral ScentADDITIONAL FUNCTIONS OF FLORAL SCENTSCONCLUSIONS: Vegetative and Fruit Volatiles for Human ConsumptionBAY (LAURUS NOBILIS)CARROT (DAUCUS CAROTA)FENNEL (FOENICULUM VULGARE)BASIL (OCIMUM BASIUCUM)NIGELLA (NIGELLA SATIVA) 5.6.1 Fruit/SeedPISTACIA (PISTACIA PALAESTINA)CONCLUSIONSECTION II: Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Evolution of Plant VolatilesThe Role of Transcriptome Analysis in Shaping the Discovery of Plant Volatile Genes Past, Present, and FutureINTRODUCTIONSPEARHEADING PLANT VOLATILE GENE DISCOVERIES WITH RNA-SEQ TRANSCRIPTOMESLESSONS FROM SUCCESS STORIES IN THE DISCOVERY OF PLANT VOLATILE-RELATED GENES: FROM TARGETED STUDIES TO LARGE-SCALE MULTI-OMICS EFFORTSLeveraging Genome Sequence Data with Transcriptome, Targeted Genes, and Metabolite Profiling: Lessons from Studies of TerpenesIntegrating Transcriptome Analysis with Targeted Gene and Metabolite Profiling of Select Tissues/Organs and Developmental Stages: Lessons from the Garden PetuniaIntegrating Transcriptome Analysis with Targeted Gene and Metabolite Profiling of Specialized Tissue/Cell Types: Lessons from Sweet BasilComparative Transcriptomics Analysis and Targeted Gene and Metabolite Profiling: Harnessing Within- and Between-Species Genetic Variation in Floricultural and Agricultural Crop PlantsIntegrating Proteomics Techniques with Transcriptome and Targeted Gene and Metabolite ProfilingThe Utility of Gene Co-Expression Analysis in Model and Nonmodel Plant SystemsIntegrating Population Genomics and Multi-omics Datasets for Large-Scale Plant Volatile Gene DiscoveryFUTURE DIRECTIONSHarnessing TF Overexpression or Knockdown Coupled with Transcriptome (or Multi-omics) AnalysisHarnessing Single-Cell or Single-Cell Type Isolation Methods with Next-Generation Transcriptome (or Multi-omics) AnalysisHarnessing the Physical Proximity of Genes with Gene Co-expression AnalysisHarnessing Expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL) for Candidate PrioritizationHarnessing State-of-the-Art Machine Learning Algorithms:Maximizing the Success of Plant Volatile Gene DiscoveryCONCLUSION: Flux Distribution Dynamics at the Interface of Central Carbon Metabolism and Terpenoid Volatile FormationINTRODUCTIONCONTRIBUTION OF TWO PRECURSOR PATHWAYS TO TERPENOID VOLATILE PRODUCTIONMODELING THE BIOCHEMISTRY OF ISOPRENE EMISSION FROM POPLAR FOLIAGEORGAN-SPECIFICITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION OF TERPENOID VOLATILE FORMATION IN ARABIDOPSISMODELING TERPENOID VOLATILE METABOLISM IN SECRETORY STRUCTURESCONCLUSIONS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR FUTURE RESEARCH: Floral Scent Metabolic Pathways and Their RegulationINTRODUCTIONBIOCHEMICAL PATHWAYSBiosynthesis of Volatile TerrenesBiosynthesis of Volatile Phenylpropanoids and Related CompoundsBiosynthesis of Volatile Fatty Acid DerivativesModification ReactionsGENES RESPONSIBLE FOR SCENT PRODUCTIONREGULATION OF SCENT BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAYSCONCLUSIONS: Biosynthesis and Regulation of Vegetative Plant VolatilesINTRODUCTIONBIOSYNTHESIS OF GLVsBIOSYNTHESIS OF VOLATILE TERPENESBIOSYNTHESIS OF PHENYLPROPANOID VOLATILESVOLATILE GLYCOSIDES, A STORAGE FORM OF VOLATILE COMPOUNDS IN VEGETATIVE TISSUESFINAL REMARKS: Biosynthesis and Regulation of Fruit VolatilesINTRODUCTIONTHE MAIN PATHWAYS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF FRUIT VOLATILESBIOSYNTHESIS OF VOLATILES IN SPECIFIC FRUITSREGULATION OF VOLATILE EMISSIONCONCLUSION: Biosynthesis and Regulation of Belowground Signaling MoleculesINTRODUCTIONTERPENOID RHIZOSPHERE SIGNALSPHENOLIC RHIZOSPHERE SIGNALSFunction of Phenolic Compounds as Signaling MoleculesBiosynthesis and Diversification of Phenolic CompoundsREGULATION OF SIGNAL MOLECULE PRODUCTIONCONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVE: Evolution of Scent GenesINTRODUCTIONTHE MOTORS OF NATURAL SELECTIONFriends and Foes Interacting with PlantsMolecular Mechanisms Leading to Biochemical DiversityDIVERGENT EVOLUTION: THE CREATION OF CHEMODIVERSITYEvolution of Tea Scent in RoseEnzyme Promiscuity and Gene Clusters: The Example of Terpene SynthasesCONVERGENT EVOLUTIONFunctional Convergence: Distinct Enzyme Lineages Producing Similar CompoundsPathway Convergence: Different Pathways Producing the Same CompoundsLOSS- OR GAIN-OF-FUNCTION MUTATIONS AS A SOURCE OF VOC DIVERSITYLoss of Floral Scent Production during Pollinator-Mediated SpeciationLoss- and Gain-of-Function Mutations Impacting Scents and Aromas in Cultivated Plant SpeciesCONCLUSION: Volatiles in GlandsINTRODUCTIONGLANDULAR TRICHOMESDistribution of Volatile-Containing Glandular Trichomes in the Plant KingdomSummary for Trichome SectionIDIOBLASTSSECRETORY CAVITIESSECRETORY DUCTS AND LATICIFERSSCENT GLANDS (OSMOPHORES) AND HEARTWOODCONCLUSION: Emission and Perception of Plant VolatilesINTRODUCTIONLOCALIZATION AND TYPE OF CELLS INVOLVED IN THE EMISSION OF VOCsEMISSION MECHANISM OF VOCs: FROM PASSIVE TO ACTIVETRANSPORT OF VOCs FROM SITES OF BIOSYNTHESIS TO THE ATMOSPHEREThe Involvement of Transporters and Potential Biological Carriers in VOC EmissionDoes Cuticle Composition Play a Role in the VOC Emission?PERCEPTION OF VOLATILE SIGNALS IN PLANT-PLANT COMMUNICATIONPOTENTIAL MOLECULAR MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN PERCEPTION OF VOCs IN PLANTSCONCLUSIONSSECTION III: Volatiles in Plant–Plant, Plant–Insect and Plant–Microbial Interactions: Floral Volatiles for Pollinator Attraction and Speciation in Sexually Deceptive OrchidsINTRODUCTIONTHE TAXONOMIC BREADTH AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF SEXUALLY DECEPTIVE PLANTS AND THEIR POLLINATORSSEMIOCHEMICALS INVOLVED IN SEXUAL DECEPTIONAlkanes and Alkenes in Ophrys sphegodes and O. exaltataAliphatic Alcohols and Aldehydes in Ophrys leochroma and O. scolopaxCyclohexanediones (Chiloclottones) in ChiloglottisPyrazines in Drakaba(Methylthio)phenols in Caladbnia crbbra and C. attingbnsClTRONELLOL AND AN ACETOPHENONE DERIVATIVE IN CALADENIA PLICATABIOSYNTHESIS OF SEMIOCHEMICALS INVOLVED IN SEXUAL DECEPTIONSEMIOCHEMICALS, SEXUAL DECEPTION AND SPECIATIONIntroduction to Pollinator-Driven Ecological SpeciationIs Pollinator Specificity Controlled by Floral Odor Chemistry?Evidence for Pollinator-Mediated Divergent SelectionThe Strength of Floral IsolationSpeciation GenesCONCLUSIONSBehavioral Responses to Floral Scent Experimental Manipulations and Multimodal Plant-Pollinator CommunicationINTRODUCTIONMULTIMODAL FLORAL COMMUNICATIONFloral Manipulation - A Brief PrehistoryFloral AugmentationFloral DeconstructionFloral ReconstructionCONCLUSIONS: Herbivore-Induced Plant Volatiles as a Source of Information in Plant–Insect NetworksINTRODUCTIONINDUCTION OF PLANT VOLATILES BY ARTHROPOD HERBIVORY: CHEMICAL DIVERSITY AND SPECIFICITYRESPONSES OF PLANT-ASSOCIATED ARTHROPODS AT DIFFERENT TROPHIC LEVELS TO HIPVsMODIFICATION OF HIPV BLEND BY INTERACTION WITH OTHER MEMBERS OF THE PLANT-ASSOCIATED COMMUNITYGENETIC VARIATION IN HIPVsPHYTOHORMONAL MECHANISM UNDERLYING INTERFERENCE IN HIPV EMISSION BY HERBIVOROUS INSECTSWHICH HIPVs INFLUENCE ARTHROPOD BEHAVIORDISCUSSION AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVESBelowground Plant Volatiles Plant-Plant, Plant-Herbivore and Plant-Microbial InteractionsINTRODUCTIONBELOWGROUND PLANT-PLANT INTERACTIONS MEDIATED BY PLANT VOLATILESBELOWGROUND PLANT-HERBIVORE INTERACTIONS MEDIATED BY PLANT VOLATILESBELOWGROUND ROOT VOLATILES IN ROOT-BENEFICIAL MICROBE INTERACTIONSBELOWGROUND PLANT VOLATILES IN DEFENSE AGAINST MICROBIAL PATHOGENSBELOWGROUND VOLATILES FROM MODIFIED STEMS OF GEOPHYTESCONCLUSION: Tree Volatiles: Effects of Biotic and Abiotic Factors on Emission and Biological RolesINTRODUCTIONTREE VOLATILES AND THE BIOTIC ENVIRONMENTEffect of Herbivore and Pathogen Attack on EmissionMolecular Regulation of Volatile Formation after Biotic StressRole of Volatiles in Biotic InteractionsTREE VOLATILES AND THE ABIOTIC ENVIRONMENTEffect of Abiotic Factors on EmissionRole of Tree Volatiles in Abiotic Stress ResistanceCONCLUSIONSECTION IV: Genetic Improvements of Plant Volatiles: Metabolic Engineering of Plant Volatiles: Floral Scent, Flavors, DefenseINTRODUCTIONMETABOLIC ENGINEERING OF FLORAL VOLATILESIntroduction of New Gene(s) or Branchways to Redirect the Metabolic Flux to the Target CompoundModification of Existing Endogenous Metabolic PathwaysEffect of Metabolic Engineering of Floral Volatiles on Insect BehaviorMETABOLIC ENGINEERING OF FRUIT VOLATILESMETABOLIC ENGINEERING OF PLANT VOLATILES TO INCREASE PLANT DEFENSEModification of Plant Volatiles via Constitutive Expression of Terpene Synthase Genes to Enhance Defense ResponsesModification of Plant Volatiles via Tissue- and Cellular-Specific Targeting of Terrene Synthesis as Viable Tool to Increase Plant DefenseModification of Green Leaf Volatiles via the Lipoxygenase/FUTURE PERSPECTIVE: CRISPR-TECHNOLOGIES
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