Humanitarian Intervention, Colonialism, Islam, and Democracy: An Analysis Through the Human-Nonhuman


A note on the criteria for transliterating the Arabic termsI: Intervening for humanityThe origins of humanitarian interventionWhat legitimation for humanitarian intervention: A historical reconstructionThe theory of humanitarian intervention: BarbarousNatural law and “Human law”: Western humanity’sThe Eastern questionPartitioning the empireCivilization and power: Developing the colonial paradigmColonial thinking: Tocqueville and the “Eastern question”Algeria: Domination and colonization—outlines of a paradigmTocqueville’s QurʾānRepresenting the colonized: The contribution of psychiatry—a “Muslim psychiatry”Frantz Fanon: Decolonizing the “Mental illness” of the colonizedHuman and nonhuman: “How to make men out of those who are not yet men?” Colonialism and an inferior humanityDeconstructing the concepts of humanity and human natureThe Western paradigm: Human natureHuman nature and Western hegemonyThe condition of slavery of the Indios: A different humanityThe conquest of humanityWhat barbarism? Cannibalism and the force of customs; reason and common senseHume: The science of man and human natureRousseau: Human nature as identification with the otherFrom civilization to civilizationsHuman egoism and human natureInternational law and Western civilizationA relation of complementarity between psychic universalism and cultural plurality: Human life, psychic unity, and cultural dThe international community and sovereignty:War, humanitarian intervention, and the function of lawHumanitarian intervention and the “responsibility to protect”Hegemonic logics and forms of neocolonialismMore on sovereignty: How to redefine it? A standing hypocrisy?Hegemonic techniques, constitutionalism, and international lawExcursus: Humanity—history of an ideaHumanity and dignityHumanity, international law, and international human rights lawII: New democracies?Anticolonial nationalism and Arab nationalismAnticolonial nationalismAnticolonial nationalism, nation, and stateThe nationalist missionArab nationalismThe system of Arab states and the persistence of traditional social structuresThe system of Arab statesTraditional structures and nation-state buildingColonial law and the formation of the nation-stateColonial lawThe colonies’ political and administrative organizationThe colonial government of Tunisia and AlgeriaThe reception of French law in the Muslim worldThe failed attempt of the Code MorandImportation, cross-fertilization, assimilationDemocracy in Islam and Western democracy: Convergences and divergencesConstitutional transformationsIndependence and constitutionsAl-Sadāt’s “Permanent constitution”An Islamic constitutionalism?Islam and democracy: How to tackle the problem?Islamic reformismThe Islamic concept of the civil state: EthicsTwo democracies, Western and Islamic: What divergences?The sovereignty of God and the sovereignty of the peopleLegitimacy and validityWhich sovereignty?Excursus: InterpretationOne more excursus: Muslim law and religionDemocracy and shūrāColonialism, nationalism, secularizationOne final excursus: An interpretation of Islamic reformismThe perspective of liberal and democratic reformismTunisia and Egypt: Two constitutional modelsConstitutionalism and revolutionsThe Tunisian case: A model for a path towards democracyEgypt: A postcolonial revolutionThe Egyptian constitutional modelThe new Egyptian constitution: The Janus-faced nature of the Egyptian stateTunisia: A democratic futureTunisia: At long last the first elections in the new democracyThe Arab Springs in the destabilized landscape of the Middle EastTunisia: What prospects for the future?Can the compromise stand?The challenges aheadThe Arab Springs: An analysis of its roots and causesThe causes of the uprisingsFrom revolt to revolution: The people reclaiming their dignityThe civil war in LibyaAfter the fall of the regimeAutumn after spring?What peace for Libya?Europe’s roleRevolt and revolution in TunisiaThe crisis of the Arab Spring in EgyptThe end of the Arab Spring in EgyptWhat future for Egypt?Democratization and development in the Arab countries of the Mediterranean areaThe Europeanization of the southernA Short reconstruction of relations between the two shoresBeyond BarcelonaThe Europeanization of North African countriesNew prospects for cooperationThe complex relation between IslamDemocracy and Islam in the MediterraneanThe relation between democracy and developmentDemocracy as a condition of economic developmentImmigration, development, and European policiesEurope’s challenges in fostering democracy alongThe European Union, human rights, and democracyThe state’s security and human security as a new prospect for cooperationA new development modelWhat next?The Arab Spring revolutions and the possible futureMigrations across the Mediterranean and Europe: What does the future hold?