Europe: Continent of Conspiracies: Conspiracy Theories in and about Europe


Europe: a continent shaped by conspiracy theories?Conspiratorial self-identification in a tension between internal dissolution and external threat: a modelNoteReferencesTHE NEW EUROPEAN ORDER? EUROSCEPTICISM AND CONSPIRACY BELIEFConspiracies about the European UnionConspiracy belief and Anti-EU attitudes among populists and the extreme rightEuroscepticism and conspiracy beliefDiscussionReferencesTHE EURABIA CONSPIRACY THEORYThe Great ReplacementThe Eurabia literatureEarly examplesAnti-immigration/11The Syrian War and the refugee crisisMoving eastFrance and the identitariansBrexit and the United KingdomViolent turnManifestation of the Eurabia conspiracy theoryNoteReferencesMETAPHORS OF INVASION Imagining Europe as endangered by IslamisationMetaphors and discourses on the invasion of Islam: between the discourse of hate and the discourse of fearMetaphors, conspiracy theories and the threats of IslamisationThe demographic invasion: from warrior arrival to prolific settlementThe invasion of culture and identities: the rejection of multicultural policiesReligious invasion, Islam and barbarismPolitical invasion, freedoms, women and insecurityThe economic invasion, the burden of immigration and 'We first'The discourse of hatred, virality and the amplification of the theory of IslamisationTowards a path without hateNotesReferencesDER GROSSE AUSTAUSCH Conspiratorial frames of terrorist violence in GermanyConspiratorial frames of terrorist violenceTheoretical considerationsSelection of sources and methodological approachesIntroducing Camus to the German-speaking audienceReplacement ideas in the terrorist manifestos of Balliet and RathjenConspiracy theories and radical meaning-makingNotesReferencesDENYING THE GEOPOLITICAL REALITY The case of the German 'Reich Citizens'Core theories of the Reich CitizensLegal arguments against the existence of the FRGTwo different types of Reich CitizensReactionary Reich CitizensIndividualistic Reich CitizensDiscussionNotesReferencesTHE FOURTH REICH IN EUROPE Conspiracy theories about Germany in the Greek press during the economic crisisPOPULIST CONSPIRACY RHETORIC AND ARGUMENTS ON EU IMMIGRATION An exploratory analysis of pro-Brexit newspapersThe mainstreaming of conspiracy theories in the traditional news mediaThe Brexit context and conspiracy theory resonanceThe British loss of sovereignty to the European UnionBritain affected by EU enlargement (and other) policiesEU and pro-EU British institutional actors versus British ordinary citizensConclusionsNotesReferencesTHE ETERNAL GEORGE SOROS The rise of an antisemitic and Islamophobic conspiracy theoryWho is Soros?The 'Soros plan' and the 2015 'refugee crisis'Dog-whistle politicsThe international antisemitesNotesReferencesEU-RELATED CONSPIRACY THEORIES IN THE WESTERN BALKANS Gravitating between rejecting and embracing Europe through Eurovilification and EurofundamentalismLinking Euroscepticism to Eurovilification and Europhilia to EurofundamentalismAn overview of EU integration in the Western BalkansLong-term oscillations between Eurofundamentalism and Eurovilification in Croatia (1990-2020)Condensed history of Eurovilification and Eurofundamentalism in North Macedonia (2005-2020)Intergroup processes in function of Eurovilifying and Eurofundamentalist discoursesConclusionsNotesReferencesTHE BRUSSELS CONSPIRACY Narratives of EU-related conspiracy theories in pro-Kremlin MediaAnalysis of conspiracy narratives about the EU in pro-Kremlin mediaWhat turns these four narratives into narratives of conspiracy?How do the narratives produce identities and demarcate social lines (of 'us' versus 'them')?What political action do the narratives prescribe to the readers, directly and indirectly?ReferencesA CULTURE OF FEAR The decline of Europe in Russian political imaginationFear and insecurity in the age of conspiracyConspiratorial image-building in reinforcing radical populism in the post-truth worldDeclining Europe and the migration crisisConclusionsReferencesUNLOCKING THE 'BLACK BOX' OF CONSPIRACY THEORIES IN AND ABOUT EUROPEThe 'black box' of conspiracy theoriesMainstreaming of extreme positions in the mediaThe populist nostalgia of Hobbesian securityAbsolute power, absolute weakness: the modern political myth of EuropeThe new and contradictory politics of fear: realignments and reactionsReferences