African Environmental Crisis: A History of Science for Development

I. Empire, science, society and developmentThe African environmental crisis—is it a myth?: An introductionDefining termsEnvironmental history frameworkEmpire, science, society and developmentThe pre-colonial European textual narrativesImperial scientific research infrastructure and developmentThe origin of African environmental crisis hypothesisExperimental and social science researchSocial science researchAdministrative methodVectors, pests and environmental changeTsetse fly control in East AfricaLocust invasion and controlNotesEuropean exploration of East Africa: Textual analysis of travel narratives, 1831-1900East Africa as a political and social frontierApplication of spatial and scientific geographyMethods of scientific research of geographyEnvironmental desiccation hypothesisEuropean environmental narrativesComparative textual narratives of environmental changeNarratives of cultural landscapesEcological and demographic collapse in the late nineteenth centuryNotesImperial scientific infrastructure: Science for development, 1848-1960sPioneer research, 1848–1913The First World War years, 1914–1920sStation based researchResearch networksThe economic depression of the 1930sThe Second World War years, 1939–1945Development as experimental scienceThe post-Second World War years, 1945–1959International collaborationResponses of Africans to experimental scienceResearch and development in the 1960sBuilding African research capacitiesNotesAfrican environmental crisis narratives: Schemes, technology and development, 1904-1960Theoretical basis for African environmental crisis narrativesOrigins of the environmental crisis hypothesisGlobal environmental narrativesLocal environmental crisis narrativesLand degradation vs. overgrazingChanging land-use policiesLarge-scale development programsSoil conservation schemesAgricultural schemesGroundnut schemesGrazing schemesNotesII. Ecological and social researchExperimental science and development: A re-evaluation of the environmental crisis hypothesis, 1939-1960IntroductionEcological theoretical frameworkAgronomic researchSoil erosionStorm intensity and stream dischargeSoil moisture days and crop yieldEffects of land use on soil fertilityRange science researchRainfall variability and grazing capacityRotational grazingRange restorationEnvironmental restorationRange conditions and trendsTesting the environmental crisis hypothesisNotesSocial science research: Behavioral responses to development, 1919-1950History of social science research in East AfricaEthnographic encounters with African societiesSocio-ecological systems of productionCultural ecology of East AfricaSocio-cultural responses towards developmentHypothesis of changeImpact of colonial development policiesComparative social responses to development initiativesNotesAdministrative science for development dialogue: Three Kenyan case studies, 1943-1954Administrative scienceCase 1: the Kimalot land case, 1920–1956The status of the contested leasehold landAdministrative dialogueThe Native Lands Trust OrdinanceKipsoi Arap Chemorore versus the CrownCase 2: Agricultural and soil conservation schemes, 1943–1954Soil conservationCase 3: Bush clearing projects, settlements and land conflict, 1938–1954Native land ordinancesThe Kipsigis-Maasai land conflictNotesIII. Vectors, pests and environmental changeTsetse fly control in East Africa: Environmental and social impacts, 1880-1959Tsetse fly and trypanosomiasis research and control in East AfricaSleeping sickness pandemics, 1880-1929Tsetse research and controlThe depression years of the 1930sTsetse or soil erosion controlThe Second World War years, 1939-1945Tsetse research and developmentThe post-war years, 1946–1959Tsetse surveys in KenyaSocial implications of tsetse research and controlExtermination of wildlifeThe application of pesticidesImpacts on the pastoral economyNotesLocust invasion and control in East Africa: Economic and environmental impacts, 1890-1960sThe ecology of locust swarmsOutbreak areas of locust plaguesOutbreaks of desert locustsOutbreaks of red locustsEconomic impactsLocust control programsRegional controlInternational collaborationApplication of poisoned arsenic baitApplication of aerial spraysExperimental researchMonitoring locust swarmsNotesA synthesis: Conclusions and epilogConclusions from the chaptersThe African environmental crisisEmpire, science and developmentEcological and social science researchDisease vectors and pest control programsEpilogTrends in scientific researchThe era of‘big science’The UNESCO-MAB programLong-term ecological research (LTER) networksSystems analysis for decision-makingNew ecologyDisequilibrium rangeland ecology and developmentEmerging issuesSocial-economic and ecological conceptual modelNotes
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