A Brief History of Psychology

Some Comments on History in GeneralSome Comments on the History of PsychologyApproaches to the History of PsychologySummaryNotesI Pre-experimental PsychologyEarly DevelopmentsPsychological Thought in AntiquityThe Greeks, the Middle Ages, and the RenaissanceElementism and Anti-elementismPlatoAristotleThe Greek Decline and the Middle AgesThe RenaissanceSurvey of Scientific and Philosophical Trends That Culminated in Experimental PsychologyThe Scientific TrendsThe Philosophical TrendsNotesThe Lines of Development from ScienceThe Physiological TrendsA Gross Structural Correlate for a Major FunctionStudy of the ReflexNervous ConductionThe Structure and Function of the Nervous SystemLocalization of FunctionSpecific Nerve and Fiber EnergiesOther Work in SensationQuantificationThe Personal Equation and Reaction TimeStatisticsMathematical ModelsNoteThe Lines of Development from PhilosophyCritical EmpiricismEarly EmpiricistsDescartesHobbesSpinozaLockeLeibnizBerkeleyHumeKantCritical Empiricism after KantAssociationismHartleyThe Scottish SchoolThe MillsSpencerDarwinBainScientific MaterialismFrench MaterialismBritish MaterialismGerman MaterialismLater MaterialismI SummaryII The Rise of Experimental PsychologyWundt’s Immediate PredecessorsSome German Contributors before WundtWolffHerbartMüller and WeberLotzeHelmholtzPhysical and Physiological ContributionsPerception and Unconscious InferenceFechnerFechner’s MysticismFechner’s LawPsychophysicsExperimental EstheticsThe Stage Is Set for Psychology’s EmergenceNotesWilhelm WundtThe Man and His WorksWundt’s PsychologyWundt’s SystemThe Field of Psychology, Its Methods, and Its TaskThe Elements of ExperienceConsciousness and AttentionAssociationMental DevelopmentPsychic Causality and Creative SynthesisWundt’s Laboratory and StudentsNoteThe Contemporary Scene in the Age of WundtThree of Wundt’s ContemporariesBrentanoStumpfG. E. Müller and His StudentsTwo Non-Psychologists at PragueHeringMachEbbinghausKülpe and the Würzburg SchoolKülpeThe Würzburg School and Its StudentsGalton and Other British PsychologistsGaltonWard, Stout, and SullyMcDougallAnimal DarwinistsThe Character of the “New” PsychologyNoteWilliam James and Psychology in the United StatesU.S. Psychology before JamesWilliam JamesThe Man and His WorksThe Principles of PsychologyJames’s Philosophy, His Laboratory, and His StudentsOther U.S. Psychologists of the Turn of the CenturyHall and SanfordLadd and ScriptureSeashore and BaldwinCattell, Jastrow, and MünsterbergThe Founding of LaboratoriesThe Founding and Development of the American Psychological AssociationII SummaryIII Psychology in the 20th CenturyThe Age of SchoolsThe Great Schools of PsychologySome Issues on Which the Schools DifferedHow the Schools Related to the Eight TrendsThe Decline of the SchoolsStructuralism and FunctionalismTitchenerTitchener’s StructuralismThe Impact of StructuralismThe Functionalist OrientationChicago FunctionalistsDeweyAngellCarr and MeadColumbia FunctionalistsThorndikeWoodworthThe Mental Testing MovementThe Impact of FunctionalismBehaviorismAntecedents of BehaviorismScientific MaterialismMcDougallAnimal BehaviorWatsonWatson’s Life and WorkWatsonian BehaviorismLater BehaviorismHunterLashleyHull and TolmanGuthrie and SkinnerOther Post-Watsonian DevelopmentsThe Impact of BehaviorismNotesGestalt PsychologyAntecedents of Gestalt PsychologyEhrenfels and GestaltqualitätPhenomenologyThe Founders of Gestalt PsychologyWertheimerKoffkaKöhlerThe Tenets of Gestalt PsychologyLewin and Later Gestalt PsychologyThe Impact of Gestalt PsychologyPsychoanalysisAntecedents of PsychoanalysisFreudian PsychoanalysisFreudFreud’s TheoriesFreudian PsychotherapyJung, Adler, and Later PsychoanalystsPsychoanalysis and Clinical PsychologyThe Impact of PsychoanalysisThe Immediate Postschools EraAn OverviewOperationismThe Spread of the Empirical MethodProfessionalismQuantification, Cognitive Psychology, and the ComputerActive Models of Human NatureFragmentationPsychology Addresses Ethical IssuesHumanistic PsychologyThe Last Half of the 20th CenturyExternal Influences Shape PsychologyPsychological TestingThe Emergence of Cognitive ScienceBiological Psychology and NeuroscienceHealth PsychologyThe Growth of Professional PracticePsychology at the Beginning of the 21st CenturyIII SummaryIV Psychology’s Promising Past and Enigmatic FutureAn EvaluationGlossary
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