Advances in Carbon Management Technologies: Carbon Removal, Renewable and Nuclear Energy

IntroductionOnly Emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) Can Account for the Warming Experienced Since the Industrial RevolutionThe Heat Added by Anthropogenic Emissions of GHGs is Already Yielding Major Impacts, with More to ComeThere is the Danger of a Runaway Situation if Warming occurs Too Rapidly and Activates Tipping Points Associated with Amplifying FeedbacksGrowing Global Emissions, the Result of a Growing Population Demanding an Expanding Array of Resource Intensive Goods and ServicesEach Country Has a Unique GHG Emission Trajectory and Mitigation ChallengeGreenhouse Gas Emissions are Associated with All Energy, Industrial and Agricultural/Land Use SectorsMajor Emission Mitigation from All Sectors and GHGs is Required Immediately in Order to Have a Chance of Meeting International TargetsEmerging Technologies Will need to be Available and Extensively Utilized if Global Warming Target Levels Stand a Chance of Being AchievedTechnology RD&D is Woefully InadequateGeoengineering Options should be StudiedConclusionsReferencesSection 1: Global and Regional Views of Carbon ManagementRemoving Carbon Dioxide from the Air to Stabilise the ClimateIntroductionTechnologies for Capturing Carbon Dioxide from AirCapture by photosynthesisCapture by abiotic sorbentStoring the Captured Carbon DioxidePlants on land (schemes la, lb, 2)Soil (schemes 3, 4, 5)Above ground as mineral (schemes 6, 7)Below ground as mineral (schemes 8, 9)Below ground as compressed carbon dioxide (schemes 10,11)Ocean (schemes 12,13,14,15)Human environment (schemes 16,17,18)Storage longevity, monitoring and verificationEnergy Considerations in Direct Air CaptureReversible work of separationEnergy requirements in DACprocess plantChimney stack exit penaltyChoice of solvent and cost of DACDAC: Meeting the energy demandPointers to PolicyAppendixAl. Process calculationsA 2. Cost estimatesReferencesLow-Carbon Technologies in Global Energy MarketsIntroductionEconomic ContextIncome for energyEnergy consumptionDecarbonization of EconomiesResource compositionCarbon dioxide emissionsValorizationEnergy servicesIndicators of valorizationsEmerging marketsConclusionsAcknowledgmentReferencesCarbon Management: Forest Conservation and ManagementIntroductionThe Importance of Forests in the Mitigation of Climate ChangePolicies, Initiatives and Regulations of Sustainable Forest ManagementInternational policies, regulations and conventionsNational policies and regulationsForestry labelling and certification programmesEmergent Timber TechnologiesCross-laminated timber (CLT)Laminated veneer lumber (LVL)Glued laminated timber (Glulam)Oriented strand board (OSB)Prefabricated composite structuresEngineered Timber Case StudiesTimber and Timber Products for Carbon ManagementConclusionReferencesReducing Carbon Footprint of Products (CFP) in the Value ChainA Systemic Description of a Product and its Value ChainThe LCA-Methodology and Classification of EmissionsGoal and scope definitionInventory analysisImpact assessmentInterpretationThe Standards for PCR, EPD and CFPThe CFP-stanclarclQuantification of the CFPCFP goals and scopeCFP inventory analysisCFP impact assessmentCFP interpretationCase Study—Galvanised Steel StaircaseTechnical informationSystem boundariesCut-off rules and allocationData assumptionsElectricity mixCarbon Footprint of the Product (CFP)CFP as an Instrument for Reducing Carbon Footprint in the Value Chain of a SystemConcluding RemarksReferencesSignificance of Greenhouse Gas Measurement for Carbon Management TechnologiesIntroductionThe Atmosphere, Quantities, Measurements and StandardsQuantities and unitsRadiative physics, atmospheric warming, and greenhouse gas measurementsGlobal atmospheric greenhouse gas observationsGreenhouse gas mole fraction standards—Histoty and methodsAssessing Measurement System Performance NeedsIPCC Inventory Reporting MethodologiesQuantification technologies and methodsDirect emissions measurement—continuous emissions monitoring technologyComparing fuel calculation and CEMs measurementsFlue gas flow rate measurementAtmospheric Measurement of Greenhouse Gas FluxesGreenhouse gas dynamics in the global atmosphereUrban and regional greenhouse gas emissions and observing networksMeasuring Mole Fraction of Atmospheric Greenhouse and Trace GasesInfrared spectroscopySpectroscopic mole fraction analyzer designsRemote sensing of mole fractionSurface-based instrumentsTrace gas and energy flux measurement at micro-meteorological scalesMass balance and tracer gas methods for emissions determinationHigh Spatial Density Greenhouse Gas Observing Networks—The INFLUX ExampleInternational EngagementSummaryAcknowledgementsReferencesSection 2: Fossil Sector: Coal/Petroleum/Natural GasCarbon Policies for Reducing Emissions in Power Plants through an Optimization FrameworkIntroductionCarbon Policies through Optimization ApproachesCarbon Policies in the Optimal Design of Power Plants Involving Chemical Looping Combustion and Algae SystemsModel formulationResultsCarbon Policies in the Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks Involving Power-Desalination PlantsModel formulationResultsConclusionsReferencesSuggested Further ReadingCarbon Mitigation in the Power Sector: Challenges and OpportunitiesIntroductionThe fossil fuel dilemmaInnovation TimelineTechnologies in PlayTechnology innovations impacting carbon emissionsCO, reversals and economic outputThe Current Low Carbon Power PortfolioCarbon capture and CO, reductionAlternatives: Oxy-fnel combustionUltimate challenge—The final fate of CO,Looking ForwardLonger termReferencesThe Environmental Impact of Implementing CO2 Capture Process in Power Plants: Effect of Type of Fuel and Energy DemandIntroductionCO, Capture Technologies and Life Cycle AssessmentPre-combustion captureOxyfuel combustionPost-combustion captureLife cycle assessmentMethodologyResultsCase study 1: carbon capture scenarios, at constant fuel flowStudy case 2: carbon capture and scenarios, at specified energy productionConclusionsReferencesSystems Integration Approaches to Monetizing CO2 via Integration of Shale GasWaste MineralizationIntroductionProblem Statement and ApproachWaste source considerationsBrine water as a solutionAnalysisWaste evaluationThe two-step approachReaction modellingLeaching waste cementLeaching fly ashLeaching steelmaking slagAmmonium saltsCarbonation of leached calciumDefined project ejficienciesSimulation ResultsThe teacherThe carbonation vesselThe crusherFilters and recycleSolvent considerationsResults and DiscussionUtilitiesFly ash process evaluationWaste cement evaluationSteelmaking slag evaluationFixed capital and investment returnConcluding RemarksReferencesEnergy-Water-CO2 Nexus of Fossil Fuel Based Power GenerationIntroductionWatershed ActivitiesThermoelectric power generationMining of fossil resourcesFarmingMiscellaneous activitiesSupply of ecosystem servicesPotential CO, conversion technologiesPotential renewable electricity sourcesPotential land use changesResults and DiscussionBase case analysisTechnological alternativesTechnology> options for fuel and power generationCooling technology’ optionsCO, conversion technology optionsRenewable power generation technology optionsAgroecological alternativesTillage practice optionsAvailable land use change optionsSolutions to improve watershed sustainabilityConclusionsAcknowledgmentReferencesNatural Gas Reforming to Industrial Gas and Chemicals Using Chemical LoopingIntroductionChemical Looping Reforming for Syngas ProductionFluidized bed chemical looping reformingMoving bed chemical looping reforming for syngas productionSolar Thermal Chemical Looping Reforming (SoCLR)Chemical Looping Reform for Selective Oxidation of MethaneChemical Looping Oxidative Coupling of Methane (CLOCM)Selective partial oxidation of CH4 (SPOM) to formaldehyde (HCHO)ConclusionReferencesAlternative Pathways for CO2 Utilization via Dry Reforming of MethaneIntroductionMethodology FollowedEstimation of equilibrium compositionEnergy balance calculationsLCA approachPerformance ResultsComparison of syngas ratioComparison of energy’ requirementsComparison of carbon formation tendencyCARGEN—Co-production of syngas and carbon blackDRM+COSORB—Post DRM syngas ratio adjustmentCarbon footprint and operating cost comparisons for proposed processesConclusionsAcknowledgementsReferencesRanking Negative Emissions Technology Options under UncertaintyIntroductionBrief Overview of NETsInterval SAWComparison of NET OptionsImplications for the Role of CDR/NETs in Large-Scale Carbon ManagementConclusionDeclaration of Conflict of InterestAcknowledgementAppendix A—List of AcronymsAppendix В—LINGO Code for Interval SAWAppendix C—LINGO Code for Sensitivity Analysis with Respect to Criteria WeightsReferencesCarbon Management in the CO2-Rich Natural Gas to Energy Supply-ChainIntroductionCarbon capture format routesI. 2 Carbon capture in the oil and gas sectorScope and structureNatural Gas Decarbonation with AbsorptionBenefits and shortcomingsRecent focusNatural Gas Decarbonation with Membrane PermeationBenefits and shortcomingsRecent focusNatural Gas Decarbonation with Cryogenic DistillationBenefits and shortcomingsRecent focusNatural Gas Decarbonation with AdsorptionBenefits and shortcomingsRecent focusNatural Gas Decarbonation with Gas Liquid Membrane ContactorsBenefits and shortcomingsRecent focusNatural Gas Decarbonation with Supersonic SeparatorsBenefits and shortcomingsRecent focusNatural Gas Decarbonation with Hybrid TechnologiesCA/PA-MP and MP-CA/PACA-ADS and PA-ADS (CA/PA-ADS)CD-MPSS-SS and SS-MPTechnology Readiness Level and Research Status in Natural Gas DecarbonationPost-Combustion CO, CaptureCA/PACDADSGLMCSSOffshore Power GenerationCO, TransportationCO, Conversion to Methanol in FPSOFinal RemarksAcknowledgementsAbbreviations and AcronymsReferencesChemicals from Coal: A Smart ChoiceIntroductionFossil Fuel ResourcesCoal gasification and synthesis gas productionSynthesis Gas UtilizationMethanolMethanol production economicsMethanol derivativesCoal-to-Methanol-to-Olefins: Processes and CatalystsLurgi MTP processl/OP/HYDRO MTOprocessIntegration ofCTL/GTL with CTO/GTOConclusionsReferencesOptimal Planning of Biomass Co-Firing Networks with Biochar-Based Carbon SequestrationIntroductionProblem StatementModel NomenclatureModel FormulationCase StudyConclusionsAcknowledgementAppendix—LINGO CodeReferencesTrends in Transportation Greenhouse Gas EmissionsIntroductionTransportation Demand and Mode Choice for Personal MobilityMode ShiftsLight Duty Vehicle Fuels and TechnologyLife Cycle PerspectiveHeavy Duty VehiclesElectrification and TransportationBus TransitEco-DrivingAir ConditioningRailShippingAircraftPolicy OptionsReferencesSection 3: Wind/Solar/Hydro/NuclearNuclear Energy, the Largest Source of CO2 Free Energy: Issues and SolutionsIntroductionThe Nuclear ProcessCarbon Emissions from Various Energy SourcesНолу Nuclear Energy Can Assist in the Reduction of GHG EmissionsSafety ConcernsWaste ConcernsWhy Should Nuclear be Used?Advances in Nuclear TechnologyConclusionReferencesConcentrated Solar Energy-Driven Multi-Generation Systems Based on the Organic Rankine Cycle TechnologyIntroductionPower GenerationThermodynamic analysisPower, Fresh Water Generation and HeatingPower, Cooling and HeatingDesign ConsiderationsSolar irradiation dataSolar collector field and thermal energy storageOrganic Rankine cycle power system and other sub-systemsLoad characteristicsSystem configuration and controlCostConcluding RemarksAcknowledgementNomenclatureGreek symbolsSubscriptsAbbreviationsReferencesSolar Photovoltaic Technologies and SystemsIntroductionRenewable Energy ResourcesClassification of Solar Photovoltaic (SPV) TechnologiesSolar ResourcesPhotovoltaic Materials and DeviceElectrical Characteristics of Solar CellsSolar Photovoltaic TechnologySolar Photovoltaic SystemsConclusionReferencesReducing the Carbon Footprint of Wind Energy: What Can Be Learned from Life-Cycle Studies?IntroductionWhich Phase of a Wind Turbine’s Life Cycle Produces the Greatest CO,-e Emissions?Which Turbine Material Generates the Most CO,-e Emissions during Manufacturing?How can CO, Emissions from Steel Manufacturing for Turbine Parts be Reduced?What Other Factors can Reduce Turbine CO,-e Emissions?Turbine designTurbine sizeTurbine lifetimeWind farm location and layoutManufacturing locationEnd-of-life recyclingConclusions and RecommendationsReferencesHydropower: A Low-Carbon Power SourceIntroduction and SummaryHydropower History and Status TodayHistorical developmentStatus todayMain Components of Hydropower SystemStructure of a hydropower plantClassification of hydropower projectsRun-of-river (RoR) hydropower plantsStorage hydropower plantsPumped-Storage Hydropower plants (PSH)In-stream (hydrokinetic) hydropower plantsHydropower Resources—OverviewHow to compute hydropower generation potentialDefinition of hydropower potentialGlobal and regional hydropower potentialCost IssuesSustainability IssuesIntegration into Water Management SystemIntegration into Broader Power SystemFuture Deployment of HydropowerReferences
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