Proposed Method

The proposed prediction model consists of three stages. The first phase uses SSIM based template matching to reduce the number of possible prediction labels to 20. These probable character classes are further reduced to ten based on their geometrical features. In this stage, we used projection profile matching to match the similar characters geometrically. The final prediction of character is performed in the last stage by a machine learning approach. We employed LFD features and GRNN to predict the final class. The overall block diagram of the proposed three-stage hybrid model is depicted in Figure 3.7. Each stage of the model is described in Algorithms

3.1 to 3.3.

Block diagram for the proposed hybrid model

FIGURE 3.7 Block diagram for the proposed hybrid model.

Algorithm 3.1: Stage I detection algorithm

Data: Template images {Ji, 4, ■ ■ ■ ,Im} and Test character image (T) in preprocessed format Result: Best 20 probable characters for 4 <- do

Resize h and T to 60 x 60;

Sk k,T); end

Return best 20 character classes that have maximum Sk

Algorithm 3.2: Stage II detection algorithm

Data: 20 Template images {/], /2,..., /20} from Stage I and Test character image (T) in preprocessed format Result: Best, probable characters Top 1, Leftt, Bottom), Right t) =ProjcctionCount(T); for Ik «- {h,h, ■ . ■, /20} do

[Topk, Leftk, Bottomk. i?tr//iffc]=ProjectionCount(/fc);

Tk =

KRCC([Topt, Leftt, Bottom^ Righ,ti, [Topic, Leftk, Bottom к, Right к]]


Discard all option having 0 or -ve KRCC;

Return best at max 10 character classes that have maximum 7>;

Algorithm 3.3: Stage III detection algorithm

Data: 10 Feature set for {(DIi, У)), {DI2, Y%),..., (D/ю, У10)} from Stage II and Test character image (T) in preprocessed format, where Шг = {DI}, Dll... Dip}

Initialization: <7 = /2

Result: Final character label prediction Y

DIr <-LFD(T);

for i «— 1,2,..., 10 do

for each sample j in DIi do

Db <- lYX=l{DIfk - Dip-

Yij = onehotvcctor(i, 10); end end

  • 1 p72? >
  • E)£, E” exp(-^i)

Return Y;


Dataset Creation

From the earlier studies, we observed that most of the research on Odia character recognition is based on 47-51 basic characters. However, in Odia, each basic character can be combined with any other to produce a compound character and this makes the total number of classes to be the factorial of 51. But not all possible characters are used in Odia literature. From our study, we found a maximum of 432 characters that

Sample images from the dataset

FIGURE 3.8 Sample images from the dataset.

are used, out of which 211 are used most of the time and the rest are used only rarely. Without recognition of these 211 characters, Odia OCR is not effective for real-world use. Moreover, the compound characters do not follow any specific rule of combination, hence making the recognition process more difficult. Since there are no datasets publicly available that cover any of the compound characters, we developed a dataset by collecting samples from each identified class. Our dataset covers font and size variation along with heavy print, thinning, and rotation errors. For each class, our dataset contains 250 samples which form a total sample size of 52,750. Some example images from the dataset are illustrated in Figure 3.8.

Experimental Setup

For our experiment, we used a ten-fold cross-validation strategy to avoid the overfitting problem. Each of the methods and hybrid models is implemented using Matlab 2015b on a Windows machine. The following hyper-parameters were used for the proposed model. The first stage used SSIM for template matching, and the parameters for it have been kept fixed. In the second stage, KRCC ranking was used which does not require any hyper-parameters, while in the third stage the GRNN model was utilized, which is a one-pass learning approach and which required a smoothing factor to predict the class label of the unknown sample. Here, the smoothing factor was set as -s/2 . We verified the effectiveness of the single-stage feature-based recognition models on both 47 classes and 211 classes of characters. It was observed that the existing methods achieved higher accuracy for 47 classes of characters; however, they earned comparatively lower accuracy w'hile considering 211 classes. The comparative results are shown in Table 3.1. Hence, a multi-stage hybrid model is proposed to improve the recognition accuracy across both problems. We explored many hybrid models and found that the model that combines SSIM matching, projection profile ranking with KRCC, and GRNN with an LFD feature yields the best accuracy. The SSIM matching reduces the number of probable characters to 20 based on overall structural similarity. Then, the projection-profile based ranking method is employed to further reduce the probable characters to ten. Finally, LFD features and


Comparison with the State-of-the-Art Methods on 211 Classes




Accuracy for Odia Basic Characters (47 Classes) (%)

Accuracy for Odia Basic and Compound Characters (211 Classes) (%)


Zone feature















Quadrant feature




KNN (k = 5)







Zone mean feature (16 zone)




KNN (k = 5)












KNN (k = 5)







LU feature




KNN(A = 5)











KNN (k = 5)











KNN (A-= 5)











KNN (к = 5)






Proposed Model



the GRNN classifier is employed to predict the final character label. The comparison results for different possible hybrid models are given in Table 3.2.

Results and Discussion

From Table 3.1, it can be observed that the existing models obtain higher accuracy for 47 classes; however, they perform poorly while dealing with 211 character classes. A hybrid model helps in increasing the recognition accuracy using multiple stages. In this study, we proposed two different types of hybrid models based on the number of stages required: a two-stage hybrid model and a three-stage hybrid model. In the two-stage feature-based model, the recognition results of the first stage are further refined by using LFD and GRNN. In this case, different feature descriptors such as DCST and DOST along with an SVM classifier were taken into


Recognition Performance of Different Possible Hybrid Models

Hybrid Model

Accuracy (%)

Two-stage hybrid classification

Stage I: DCST + PCA and SVM Stage II: LFD and GRNN


Stage I: DCST + PCA and SVM Stage II: LFD and SVM


Stage I: DOST + PCA and SVM Stage II: LFD and SVM


Stage I: DOST + PCA and SVM Stage II: LFD and GRNN


Three-stage hybrid classification

Stage I: SSIM matching

Stage II: Projection profile matching (KROCC)

Stage III: LFD and GRNN


Stage I: SSIM matching

Stage II: Projection profile matching (KROCC)

Stage III: LFD and SVM


consideration. However, these models achieve a reduced accuracy as compared to the single-stage models which are shown in Table 3.2. This is because stage I produces similar probability values for the characters with the same geometric structures. Hence, we designed a three-stage hybrid model to overcome the limitations of the two-stage model. Here, we used template matching and ranking methods to reduce the number of predicted character classes. Then, w'e employed SSIM matching and profile projection ranking to further reduce the highly improbable characters before predicting the final class using LED and GRNN/SVM. The results of the hybrid models are shown in Table 3.2. It is observed that the three-stage model w'ith LED and GRNN provides the highest recognition performance (i.e., 90.6%) in comparison to the other hybrid models and state-of-the-art methods.

The proposed model is applied to form an OCR for Odia characters. Figures 3.9-3.14 show the results for a sample input and output at different stages of the proposed model.

Result of line separation from binary image

FIGURE 3.10 Result of line separation from binary image.

Result of word separation from each line of image

FIGURE 3.11 Result of word separation from each line of image.

Result of separation of compound and character from each word

FIGURE 3.12 Result of separation of compound and character from each word.

Result of separation of special symbol by connected component analysis

FIGURE 3.13 Result of separation of special symbol by connected component analysis.

(a) shows the original input to OCR application with a background, whereas Figur

Figure 3.9(a) shows the original input to OCR application with a background, whereas Figure 3.9(b) depicts the output of the binarization step. We used Tsallis entropy and a differential evolution optimization technique to separate the background from the foreground text. In the next stage, the lines are separated by line- wise histogram analysis. The output of the line separation is given in Figure 3.10. For each line, column-wise histogram analysis is performed, and a threshold distance for space is evaluated. Based on this, we separated words from each line and the output is illustrated in Figure 3.12. We used connected component analysis to separate characters from words and the corresponding output is shown in Figures 3.12 and 3.13. Each separated character is recognized by the classification model and the corresponding UNI-code is used to generate the text file. The final output of the application is given in Figure 3.14. The recognition errors in the text are highlighted in red.

In this study, we used 211 characters to validate the model in contrast to the previous models that considered only 47-51 characters. It was observed from the results how the existing models failed to perform on 211 characters and how our model helped to improve the recognition accuracy. The usability of the model was shown through an application example, which can be used for saving historical documents in digital form. It can also help to manage different printed documents by converting them into an editable text format.

Conclusion and Future Scope

In this chapter, we proposed a hybrid three-stage model for recognition of Odia compound and basic characters. The model first utilized the structural similarity index together with template matching to find 20 alike characters for a given testing sample. Subsequently, we applied a projection matching technique to obtain the most alike characters. Eventually, we predicted the actual class using LFD features and GRNN. We validated the proposed model using a dataset spanning 52,750 images from 211 classes. The proposed scheme obtained a higher accuracy of 90.6% w'hen compared with the state-of-the-art methods and can hence be used to better recognize the historical and contemporary Odia documents. The earned accuracy is still far from achieving human-like precision, hence, in the future, further research needs to be carried out towards the improvement of model performance. The separation between the touched character and overlapping words could be made for accurate recognition of characters. Deep learning algorithms have recently achieved dramatic success in a variety of computer vision applications and, hence, the performance on the considered dataset could be tested using different contemporary deep learning algorithms.


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