Section III: Beyond Segmentation

Segmental Traits in Non-Segmented Bilaterians

Bruno C. Vellutini

CONTENTS

  • 9.1 Background...................................................................................................206
  • 9.2 What Is Segmental?......................................................................................207
  • 9.3 Xenacoelomorpha.........................................................................................208
  • 9.4 Deuterostomia...............................................................................................209
  • 9.4.1 Hemichordata (Acorn Worms)..........................................................209
  • 9.4.2 Echinodermata (Sea Urchins, Sea Stars, and Others)......................212
  • 9.4.3 Cephalochordata (Lancelets or Amphioxi)......................................213
  • 9.4.4 Tunicata (Sea Squirts and Salps)......................................................213
  • 9.5 Ecdysozoa.....................................................................................................214
  • 9.5.1 Nematoda (Round Worms)...............................................................214
  • 9.5.2 Nematomorpha (Horsehair Worms).................................................216
  • 9.5.3 Priapulida (Penis Worms).................................................................216
  • 9.5.4 Kinorhyncha (Mud Dragons)............................................................217
  • 9.5.5 Loricifera (Girdle Wearers)..............................................................218
  • 9.5.6 Tardigrada (Water Bears).................................................................218
  • 9.5.7 Onychophora (Velvet Worms)...........................................................219
  • 9.6 Spiralia..........................................................................................................221
  • 9.6.1 Chaetognatha (Arrow Worms)..........................................................221
  • 9.6.2 Rotifera (Wheel Worms)...................................................................221
  • 9.6.3 Micrognathozoa (Jaw Animals)........................................................223
  • 9.6.4 Gastrotricha (Hairybacks)................................................................224
  • 9.6.5 Platyhelminthes (Flatworms)............................................................224
  • 9.6.6 Nemertea (Ribbon Worms)...............................................................226
  • 9.6.7 Mollusca (Snails and Squids)............................................................227
  • 9.6.8 Brachiopoda (Lamp Shells)..............................................................231
  • 9.6.9 Phoronida (Horseshoe Worms).........................................................232
  • 9.6.10 Bryozoa (Moss Animals)..................................................................232
  • 9.7 Discussion.....................................................................................................232

Acknowledgments..................................................................................................236

References..............................................................................................................236

 
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