Study findings

Jons G.J. Beek, Zehava Rosenblatt, and Theo Wubbels


In this chapter, we present the findings across and within countries. We report on teachers and principals, findings on the distribution of accountability (external and internal with regard to two audiences, parents and school management), and the distribution of cultural values (individualism and collectivism) and organizational support. Then we move to the findings on the prediction of teachers' accountability by cultural values and organizational support. Finally, we present a summary of all findings on predictions of teachers' and principals' accountability.

These topics were investigated using a questiomiaire that included scales representing the main study variables. Scale items were answered on a five-point Likert scale (ranging from 1 to 5) and, per scale, an average score was created for all items together also ranging from 1-5. The study sample included 2,554 teachers from eight countries and 132 principals from six countries. More details about the study samples, population, and data collection can be found in Chapter 3 - Study Methods. The principals selected for the study matched the teachers' sample, so that each principal could be identified by their respective teachers in the same school. The number of principals in each school and each country varied. The across and within country tests met the minimum sample size requirements, but for some countries the distribution of principals’ scores between males and females was not close to equal. It should be noted that both the samples of South Africa and Zimbabwe included a relatively small number of male principals. This combined with the small within countries sample sizes made us cautious about inferences concerning the observed within country principal variations in these countries. We used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to analyze the teacher data and simple regressions to analyze the principal data. We present effect size statistics according to Cohens’ (1988) criteria.

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