Prediction of accountability: summary
The first notable finding on predicting teachers' external and internal accountability is the similarity of the signs of most significant coefficients. All coefficients had a positive sign, indicating that a higher score on one of these predictors increased teachers’ accountability disposition. Organizational support and collectivism were the strongest predictors of teachers' accountability disposition at the teacher level. For external accountability, these were the only predictors at the teacher level. For internal accountability, other than individualism and collectivism, gender was a predictor as well (female teachers were more internally accountable). At the school level, the models differed from each other except for the school mean of collectivism that predicted both types of accountability. Internal accountability was also predicted by individualism and organizational support. In addition, principals' accountability proved to be a significant predictor of their respective school teachers’ accountability: principals' external accountability predicted their teachers' external accountability, and principals' internal accountability predicted their teachers' internal accountability.
In sum, in all eight countries, external and internal teachers’ accountability were considerably related to the cultural values teachers held, more so with collectivism than with individualism. Organizational support was an even stronger predictor: the more teachers experienced support in their work, the more they felt both externally and internally accountable. Principals' external and internal accountability were also strong predictors of their respective teachers' external and internal accountability.
Teachers ’ accountability toward parents and school management
The first notable finding for accountability, specifically toward parents and school management, is the similarity of the predictors at the teacher level with those for predicting external accountability in general (for no specific audience). Within all three predictive models, teachers’ collectivistic views and organizational support were important predictors of teachers' external accountability. Teachers' individualistic views failed to predict teachers’ accountability scores in all three models (general, parents, and management). At the school level, more variations were found among the three predictive models. Most notable was the predictive value of the school means of teachers’ collectivism in the models predicting accountability dispositions toward parents and school management, where this predictor failed to predict the teachers' general external accountability. Also notable was the failure of the school mean of teachers’ organizational support to predict teachers’ accountability dispositions toward parents. A final interesting finding is that the total amount of variance at the school level was substantively lower for the model predicting teachers' accountability dispositions toward parents (12%) than for the model predicting teachers’ accountability dispositions toward school management (25%) and for general external accountability. Of the total variance, 19% was located at the school level.
Principals ’ accountability
Comparing the models that predicted teachers' external and internal accountability and the models that predicted principals' external and internal accountability, we see a similar trend. In all four models, the culmral values and organizational support played a predictive role, and both teachers’ and principals’ accountability disposition could be predicted to a reasonable degree. Female principals feeling a bit more externally accountable than their male colleagues is another feature of this model. The added explained variance in the model by including country dummy variables is striking, specifically that mainly one country, the Netherlands, is responsible for this effect.
Principals ’ accountability toward parents and school management
The models for predicting principals' accountability toward parents and school management follow the lines of the model for principals' external accountability, with collectivism and the interaction between collectivism and organizational support being the strongest predictors. Also, the gender effect and the added explained variance by the country dummies are noteworthy. Female principals feel somewhat more accountable toward parents and school management than do male principals.
- 1 The results of these tests are available from the authors on request.
- 2 Results for the Bonferroni post hoc test are available from the authors on request.