Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing Technology: Principles and Applications


Development of Additive ManufacturingMajor Trends Shaping the Evaluation of 3D PrintingTechnology ImprovementActive 3D Printing MarketD Printing ProcessesMaterial ExtrusionFused Deposition Modeling (FDM)Vat PhotopolymerizationStereolithography (SLA)Digital Light Processing (DLP)Powder Bed FusionPowder Bed Fusion (Polymers)Powder Bed Fusion (Metals)Material JettingMaterial Jetting (MJ)Drop on Demand (DOD)Binder JettingSand Binder JettingMetal Binder JettingSheet LaminationMaterials Used in Sheet LaminationDirected Energy DepositionClassification of Additive Manufacturing SystemsLiquid-BasedSolid-BasedPowder-BasedAdvantages and LimitationsAdditive vs. Conventional Manufacturing ProcessesApplicationsExercisesMultiple-Choice QuestionsCAD for Additive ManufacturingPreparation of CAD Models: The STL FileSTL File Format, Binary/ASCIIFormat SpecificationsSTL ASCII FormatSTL Binary FormatCreating STL Files from a CAD SystemCalculation of Each Slice ProfileTechnology-Specific ElementsProblems with STL FilesSTL File ManipulationViewersBeyond the STL FileDirect Slicing of the CAD ModelColor ModelsMultiple MaterialsUse of STL for MachiningAdditional Software to Assist AMSurvey of Software FunctionsAM Process Simulations Using Finite Element AnalysisThe Additive Manufacturing File FormatSOLVED EXAMPLEEXERCISESMultiple-Choice QuestionsLiquid-Based Additive Manufacturing SystemsD Systems Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA)Stratasys PolyJetFused Deposition Modeling from StratasysMaterial Jetting MachinesD Systems’ Multi-Jet Printing System (MJP)EnvisionTEC’s PerfactoryCMET’s Solid Object Ultraviolet-Laser Printer (SOUP)EnvisionTEC’s BioplotterRegenHU’s 3D BioprintingRapid Freeze PrototypingFDM 3D Printing for Zygomatic Implant Placement Mock Surgery for Prosthodontic Dentistry: A Case StudyZygomatic ImplantConclusionExercisesMultiple-Choice QuestionsSolid-Based Additive Manufacturing SystemsStratasys Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)Solidscape’s BenchTop SystemMcor Technologies’ Selective Deposition Lamination (SDL)Cubic Technologies’ Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM)Working ProcessApplicationsUltrasonic ConsolidationExercisesMultiple-Choice QuestionsPowder-Based Additive Manufacturing SystemsD Systems’ Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)TechnologyMaterialsPowder ProductionSintering MechanismsAdvantageApplicationD Systems’ ColorJet Printing (CJP) TechnologyTechnologyEOS’s EOSINT SystemAbout EOS (Electro Optical Systems)EOSINT M 280 SystemOptomec’s Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) and Aerosol Jet SystemAbout OptomecLaser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS)How the LENS System WorksArcam’s Electron Beam Melting (EBM)Concept Laser’s LaserCUSINGConcept Laser’s Patented LaserCUSING 3D-Printing TechnologyWorking of LaserCUSING 3D-Printing TechnologyAdditional Features of LaserCUSING 3D-Printing TechnologyAdvantages of LaserCUSING 3D-Printing TechnologySLM Solutions’ Selective Laser Melting (SLM)ExercisesMultiple-Choice QuestionsMaterials in Additive ManufacturingChoosing Materials for ManufacturingApplicationAstheticsFunctionCertificationsNylonABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene)ResinPLA (Polylactic Acid)Gold and SilverStainless SteelTitaniumCeramicsPET/PETGHIPS (High Impact Polystyrene)ThermoplasticsThermosets (Resins)MetalsMultiple MaterialsMulti-Material and Composite Additive Manufacturing MethodsStereolithography MethodsBinder Jetting MethodsExtrusion-Based Printing MethodsMaterial Jetting Printing MethodsMetal AM Processes and MaterialsPowder-Bed SystemsPowder-Fed SystemsDirect Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) MaterialsSelective Laser Sintering (SLS) MaterialsStereolithography (SLA) MaterialsComposite MaterialsGeneric Composite MaterialsComposite Materials for 3D Printing ProcessesBiomaterials, Hierarchical Materials, and BiomimeticsBiomaterialsBiomedicalHierarchical Materials and BiomimeticsBiomimeticsDefinition of Biomimetic MaterialHistory of Biomimetic MaterialsCeramics and Bio-CeramicsCeramicsBio-CeramicsShape-Memory Materials, 4D Printing, and Bio-Active MaterialsShape-Memory MaterialsHow Does Shape-Memory WorkShape-Memory AlloysShape-Memory PolymersShape-Memory CompositesShape-Memory HybridsD Printing and Bio-Active MaterialsAdvanced AM MaterialsSupport MaterialsBuild Material SupportsMaterials as Their Own SupportQuick Removal: Breakaway SupportsBest Quality: Soluble SupportsSupporting with the Original MaterialSupporting with PVA FilamentSupporting with PVA+ FilamentExercisesMultiple-Choice QuestionsApplications and ExamplesApplication–Material RelationshipPolymerMetalFinishing ProcessesPlatingSandingBead BlastingShot PeeningHeat TreatmentsVibratory SystemsTumblingVapor SmoothingSolvent DippingEpoxy CoatingEpoxy InfiltrationPaintingApplications in DesignCAD Model VerificationVisualizing ObjectsProof of ConceptApplications in Engineering, Analysis, and PlanningScalingForm and FitFlow AnalysisPre-Production PartsApplications in Manufacturing and ToolingDirect Soft ToolingIndirect Soft ToolingDirect Hard ToolingIndirect Hard ToolingAerospace IndustryThe Benefits of 3D Printing for Aerospace and DefenseLow-Volume ProductionWeight ReductionMaterial EfficiencyConsolidation of the PartMaintenance and RepairAutomotive IndustryThe Benefits of 3D Printing for AutomotiveFaster Product DevelopmentGreater Design FlexibilityCustomizationCreate Complex GeometriesJewelry IndustryInvestment CastingDirect PrintingCoin IndustryTableware IndustryGeographic Information System (GIS) ApplicationsArts and ArchitectureBenefits of 3D Printing for ArchitectsConstructionFashion and TextilesWeaponsMusical InstrumentsFoodMoviesDesign and Development of a Prosthetic Hand through 3D Printing: Case StudyConclusionPrototype AssessmentExercisesMultiple-Choice QuestionsAdditive Manufacturing EquipmentProcess Equipment—Design and Process ParametersSeven Distinct AM ProcessesPowder Bed FusionDirected Energy DepositionBinder JettingSheet LaminationMaterial ExtrusionMaterial JettingVat PhotopolymerizationDesigning for 3D PrintingGoverning Bonding MechanismOverview of the Bonding ProcessBond MechanismsCommon Faults and TroubleshootingThe Printer Is Working but Nothing Is PrintingThe Problem—Out of FilamentThe CauseThe SolutionNozzle Is Too Close to the Print BedThe ProblemThe CauseThe SolutionOver-ExtrusionThe Problem—Print Looks Droopy and StringyThe CauseThe SolutionIncomplete and Messy InfillThe ProblemThe CauseThe SolutionWarpingThe Problem—BendingThe CauseThe SolutionMessy First LayerThe ProblemThe CauseThe SolutionElephant’s FootThe ProblemThe CauseThe SolutionPrint Looks Deformed and MeltedThe ProblemThe CauseThe SolutionSnapped FilamentThe ProblemThe CauseThe SolutionGetting Cracks in Tall ObjectsThe ProblemThe CauseThe SolutionProcess DesignCreation End Evaluation of Support StructureAdditive Manufacturing PreparationValidation of Build Time and CostAdditive Manufacturing SimulationLow Cost, Rapid Deployment Wireless Patient Monitoring System Developed with Additive Manufacturing Equipment: Case StudyConclusionExercisesMultiple-Choice QuestionsPost-ProcessingSupport Material RemovalNatural Support Post-ProcessingSynthetic Support RemovalSupports Made from the Build MaterialSupports Made from Secondary MaterialsSurface Texture ImprovementsAccuracy ImprovementsSources of InaccuracyModel Pre-Processing to Compensate for InaccuracyMachining StrategyAdaptive Raster MillingSharp Edge Contour MachiningHole DrillingEsthetic ImprovementsPreparation for Use as a PatternInvestment Casting PatternsSand Casting PatternsOther Pattern Replication MethodsProperty Enhancements Using Non-Thermal TechniquesProperty Enhancements Using Thermal TechniquesExercisesMultiple-Choice QuestionsProduct QualityBuilding the PartPowder ReclamationPost-Processing and FinishingBulk Deposit DefectsDimensional Accuracy, Shrinkage, and DistortionInspection, Quality, and Testing of AM Metal PartsNondestructive Test MethodsDestructive Test MethodsForm, Fit, Function, and Proof TestingStandards and CertificationKey Takeaway PointsOverview of 4D PrintingA Definition of 4D PrintingThe Difference between 4D and 3D PrintingPotential Applications for 4D PrintingExercisesMultiple-Choice QuestionsInterview Preparedness