Advantages and Disadvantages of the Change Models

As noted throughout this paper, each model has certain advantages and disadvantages. The matrix of change is more of a practical tool for managers to use when planning and assessing processes for change. It has the advantage of having a mathematical matrix's appearance aligned to a process matrix used to consider the change. The matrix uses a sophisticated approach requiring a user that has a thorough understanding of the organization for this model to be of value. The subjective assessment of processes requires an in-depth understanding of the success criteria. The subjective assessment is both an advantage and a disadvantage.

While the matrix is a powerful tool to accomplish a change initiative, it is not a simple approach to pick up and use with confidence. The matrix of change is detail-oriented and requires an excellent understanding of the organization and the related processes associated with the change process. Again, this requirement is certainly a disadvantage, but may also be an advantage as it forces those involved in managing the change to be fully involved.

The model is much more applicable for a small-scale change initiative because of the opportunity to detail the minute relationships that impact the interrelatedness of the processes and the sub-processes. Large-scale projects will likely become too complicated for reasonable use. It is undoubtedly an advantage for the model to use the highly detail-oriented nature of sophisticated system design; it is also subject to failure because of the complexity of the design. The collection of detailed information on the processes requires a person familiar with the business unit being assessed, and this again is both an advantage and disadvantage because it relies on limited personnel resources in a business unit.

The ORM system flow diagram (i.e., change model) is very similar to the Whole-Scale Change model. There is a real advantage because the Whole-Scale Change model is well established and is currently used (James & Tolchinsky, 2007). The critical advantage of both approaches is an ongoing process of continual improvement through organizational learning. This ongoing feedback loop allows for constant monitoring and adjustment throughout the process of change.

While the Whole-Scale Change approach is focused on large-scale, organization-wide change, the ORM system flow diagram has the flexibility to scale down to smaller business units if necessary. However, the

ORM model was intended for system-wide change to take advantage of the interrelatedness of internal and external supply chains and vendors' complex processes. This model takes advantage of using a systems approach to managing change in a complex environment.

The development of a shared vision and organizational learning allows an organization to benefit from the change initiative (Senge, 2006). This continual improvement through organizational learning is a fundamental underpinning of the model and perhaps the most critical aspect of the entire process. The Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle is another aspect of the continual process of learning throughout the change process.


Any organization seeking to maintain a competitive edge must change to benefit from technological advances, market adjustments, and customer interests. Organizational changes allow people throughout the company to make new interpersonal relationships and learn new skills. Change creates an opportunity for a new mindset within the organization; change requires a change in people. Leaders that support change initiatives foster dynamic flexibility in the workforce. The more practice people have with accepting and operating in a changing environment, the more capable they are of producing positive results.

Transformational change involves organization-wide initiatives affecting most of the employees and involves new ways of doing things to include new behaviors (Carlstrom, 2012). It is important to understand the transformative change initiative strategic approach used to realize the change. The change initiative determines the appropriateness of a strategic approach. The focus on the strategic approach to achieve transformative change acknowledges the challenges associated with all change initiatives. The strategic approach drives the achievement of a transformative change by identifying, planning, communicating, implementing, and monitoring a change initiative.

Interpersonal skills are critical to establishing a meaningful relationship with people, thereby achieving the desired change initiative. Many professionals focus on developing their knowledge base associated with their specialty. While establishing and maintaining professional expertise is essential, the often overlooked "soft-skills" is just as critical to making the necessary connection with people. Change management is dependent upon the human connection between people, and interpersonal skills are necessary to make that connection. Make the audience a partner in the change initiative process - be friendly.

The change matrix and the Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle models are powerful and useful change tools to facilitate the change initiative's completion. Both models have advantages and disadvantages, and it is necessary to understand the models to ensure appropriate selection in complex change environments. The models are highly useful in complex environments but may not be appropriate in all situations.

The Matrix of Change is appropriate for smaller, more contained change projects that allow the matrix to benefit from the detailed information needed to complete the matrix. The interrelatedness of complex processes conventional in dynamic systems will be challenging to manage.

The ORM System Flow Diagram - Plan-Do-Check-Act model is well suited for large-scale organizations to small-scale business units. This model was designed for implementing organizational resilience. However, it can be modified quite quickly because it is based on the Whole- Scale Change model presented by James and Tolchinsky (2007).

Senge (2006) discusses the value of developing a shared vision and organizational learning experience as a benefit from the change initiative. The ORM model uses continual improvement and organizational learning as a fundamental underpinning of the model; this is probably the most critical aspect of the entire process.

Each model is exceptionally well suited for the purpose it was designed for and has a certain level of flexibility to include more change options. The Matrix of change model is less suited but still very powerful in the right situation. Each has specific requirements for practical use and, therefore, limitations. However, the issues are treatable if the OD professionals fully understand the model and the organization.

The strategies discussed herein are effective methods for achieving transformative change. Each strategy works fine as the primary approach to change. However, there are opportunities for combining strategies syn- ergistically to achieve transformative change. An example of two strategic approaches working together is a quality improvement as a strategy and catalyst for developing team efforts to modify systems and processes and supported through a top-down strategic approach to transformative change (LeBrasseur, Whissell, & Ojha, 2002).

The strategy depends on the interpersonal skills and the change manager's ability to use the change models. Change managers that are advanced in their use of the models will likely have better results;

there is nothing wrong with taking a straightforward approach. The change agent must make a positive and personal connection with the audience to gain trust and participation throughout the change process. Interpersonal skills will make the difference between the audience wanting to become involved and an audience that is doubtful about the change initiative.


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1. Physical Security: PACS

The director of security of a mid-sized financial organization has decided to begin the process of implementing electronic, physical access control for the organization. The CEO has approved the project and has provided verbal support during the executive committee meeting approving the project. What are the change management issues associated with this project?

2. Business Impact Analysis: General Risk

You have been assigned to meet with the managers of the HR team to discuss conducting business impact analyses (BIA) for the team. The managers are very busy, and they are reluctant to agree to participate in the BIAs. The information gained from the BIAs is used by several departments, such as business continuity, security, ITDR, and risk management. How would you go about gaining their participation in the BIAs?


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