The HR Department recruits and provides services to the employees of an organization. HR touches every employee from the top-down and is expected to provide fair, consistent policies designed to ensure the efficient operation of the organization. Achieving organizational goals relies on policy development surrounding the behavior and compensation of the employees. The policies attempt to establish the necessary constraints on behavior, like a society establishing controls on behavior, and these control limitations are associated with the culture of the organization. The members of the organization constitute a subset of the larger external society. Each organization has a particular society with norms of behavior. For instance, the attire of the employees is a common issue of concern; some companies allow any attire, and other companies have rigid rules on acceptable clothing to include the color of a business suit.
Cameron and Quinn (2011) indicate the fundamental differences between the four cultural profiles from an HR perspective. The clan culture produces the HR function as the champion of the workers; the adhocracy culture sees the HR role as a change agent within the organization; hierarchy culture produces the HR specialist seeking efficiency, and the marker culture reveals HR as a business partner (Cameron & Quinn, 2011). The differences between these roles indicate that the HR function is not static, but changeable according to the philosophical and cultural approach of the organization.
The policies developed by HR are not arbitrary or capricious; they reflect the culture or profile of the organization. Creative organizations have greater internal flexibility allowing the employees to achieve higher levels of creativity. Hierarchical cultures are more rigid and demanding adherence to protocols. A clan organization is more collaborative within the employee approach to achieving goals and therefore focused on the commitment and development of the employee. For instance, developing an employee is essential, and the organization is likely to have professional and personal development programs such as tuition assistance. The market profile can be seen in financial organizations where commission employees receive high commissions for achieving sales and profits goals. This type of organization probably has an experienced security and risk management operation to detect fraud; fraud is a common risk in commission-based operations.
The culture of an organization consists of various principles, traditions, beliefs, and philosophical approaches to conducting business. The culture represents the people (i.e., employees and stakeholders) and their respective formal and informal attitudes toward achieving organizational objectives. The culture is more than just attitudes; it is the fundamental fabric of the organization and the organizational soul. The Competing Values Framework indicates that each organization has a distinct culture associated with the approach to achieving organizational objectives or efficiency (Cameron & Quinn, 2011).
The clan culture focuses on collaboration and balanced relationships between the internal integrative elements of business and the discretionary approaches to business. The adhocracy or creative culture concentrates on the external delivery of achievements; there is considerable flexibility in the approach to achieving goals; the creative mind needs more freedom to excel. The hierarchical or control-oriented culture is much more traditional. It flourishes in a stable organization that exhibits control over the elements of the organization. The culture appears as a rather inflexible approach to discretion; these are the old businesses like IBM and big banks. Market-driven cultures focus on competition through a controlled internal environment and a highly flexible external environment; achieving the sales objectives requires flexible external decision-making.
The Complexities of Change Management
Organizations are varied in size, purpose, and fundamental design. However, they have similarities in that each organization has a purpose, and it has employees. Researchers look at how people form groups, perform their work, react to a stimulus, and draw conclusions from the data. Organizational research helps academics and practitioners to understand the complexities within the internal and external environment of an organization. It is essential for practitioners operating within the organizational arena to understand how and why theory change agents, and employees affect both non-profit and for-profit organizations. Researchers provide that knowledge through careful study and theory development.