Results

In the sections below, selected examples are discussed in full. Other extracts are given in the Appendix.

Metaphors of Happiness or Sadness

Of the 16 metaphors extracted for analysis, nine were related to happi-ness/sadness. These are presented in Table 8.1.

Table 8.1 Happiness/sadness metaphors

EXTRACT

ST metaphor

TT metaphor

1

EMOTION IS UP

EMOTION IS A CONTAINER

2

EMOTION IS LIGHT

EMOTION IS VITALITY

3

EMOTION IS A

CONTAINER

EMOTION IS A SUBSTANCE IN A CONTAINER

7

EMOTION IS A

CONTAINER

EMOTION IS A SUBSTANCE IN A CONTAINER

8

EMOTION IS A

CONTAINER

EMOTION IS A CONTAINER

9

EMOTION IS RAPTURE

EMOTION IS VITALITY

10

EMOTION IS RAPTURE

No metaphor

11

EMOTION IS VITALITY

EMOTION IS VITALITY

12

EMOTION IS AN OPPONENT

EMOTION IS AN OPPONENT

In Extract 1, the ST exemplifies the conceptual metaphor HAPPINESS IS UP (and by implication, SADNESS IS DOWN).

(1) ST: “Although a capital trial can be quite grim, our spirits were

generally high” (Mandela 1994:426).

TT Naxa ityala... linokuba luzengezenge olulusizi, sasisoloko sisemincilini (Mandela 2001:341). [ВТ: Although a-case it-could-be long-tiresome-event sad, we-always-had we-in-happiness]

Conceptual metaphors can sometimes be expressed in terms of corporeal orientation (Kovecses 2010), as body posture has an effect on one’s mental state: being upright is associated with being in a good mood, whereas sadness is associated with a slumped or bent posture. In the ST extract, ‘grim’ is contrasted with ‘high spirits’. The basic meaning of ‘grim’ is associated with a serious and unfriendly facial expression (Macmillan online dictionary), whereas the contextual meaning has to do with an unpleasant and depressing situation. The second part of the sentence portrays happiness: the adjective “high” describing the abstract noun “spirits” is therefore an instantiation of the conceptual metaphor HAPPINESS IS UP.

In the TT, the trial has been personified by the adjective olulusizi (sad), which mirrors the ST but without the implied direction. “High spirits” is translated as (sis)emincilinii (lit. we were inside excitement). Excitement is therefore presented as a container holding the self; the conceptual metaphor is thus EMOTION (happiness) IS A CONTAINER.

Extract 2 contains the metaphor HAPPINESS IS LIGHT:

(2) ST: “He brightened at this” (1994:408)

TT mathakazela (2001:328) [ВТ: he-was-excited]

The basic meaning of “brighten” is to become or make something lighter or brighter in colour. The contextual meaning has to do with joy. The basic meaning and the contextual meaning are sufficiently distinct: the joy felt by the officer is understood in terms of change in complexion from dark to light. Hence, the underlying conceptual metaphor is EMOTION (happiness) IS LIGHT. In the TT, “brightened” is replaced by the verb uku(thakazela) meaning “to agree with joy” or “to utter a joyous exclamation” (Kropf 1915), indicating animation. Therefore, the conceptual metaphor underpinning this expression is EMOTION (happiness) IS VITALITY.

Extract 3 illustrates the metaphor EMOTION (sadness) IS A CONTAINER:

(3) ST: “We felt like slumping in despair” (Mandela 1994:158)

TT Sanga masithi vuleka mhlaba singene (Mandela 2001:124) [BT: We-felt-like saying open-up earth so-that-we-enter]

The contextual meaning of ‘slumping’ is metaphorical because it does not refer to the physical body falling but to an emotional ‘falling down’ caused by feeling hopeless, suggesting the conceptual metaphor SADNESS IS DOWN. However, the use of the preposition ‘in’ suggests that the emotion of despair is a container (Kovecses 2010). Hence, the expression ‘slumping in despair’ is motivated by the metaphor EMOTION (sadness) IS A CONTAINER. In the TT, this expression is rendered as the idiomatic expression ‘vuleka mhlaba singene’ (lit. open up earth so that we may enter). This classical metaphor is used to expresses that the shameful and disgusting things one sees cannot be tolerated (GDX). The TT expression also suggests a CONTAINER metaphor where the earth is the container in which the speaker wants to hide from the embarrassment. The translator conceptualised the ST expression differently in that it is not the emotion that is the container but the earth. The emotion is the substance in the container. This is a case of the cause and effect relationship that characterises metonymies. Hence EMOTION IS A SUBSTANCE IN A CONTAINER is the motivation for the idiomatic expression vuleka mhlaba singene.

Metaphors of Anger

Altogether, seven metaphors of anger were extracted. These are presented in Table 8.2.

Extract 4 illustrates the metaphor EMOTION (anger) IS SUBSTANCE IN A CONTAINER:

(4) ST: “Steve exploded" (Mandela 1994:407).

TT: USteve wadubuleka (Mandela 2001:327). [BT: Steve he-exploded]

Table 8.2 Metaphors of anger

EXTRACT

ST metaphor

TT metaphor

4

EMOTION IS A SUBSTANCE

IN A CONTAINER

EMOTION IS A SUBSTANCE

IN A CONTAINER

5

EMOTION IS A NATURAL FORCE

EMOTION IS A NATURAL FORCE

6

EMOTION IS HEAT (smoke)

EMOTION IS HEAT (steam)

13

EMOTION IS A CAPTIVE ANIMAL

EMOTION IS A CAPTIVE

ANIMAL

14

EMOTION IS A CAPTIVE ANIMAL

EMOTION IS A SUBSTANCE

IN A CONTAINER

15

EMOTION IS A NATURAL FORCE

EMOTION IS WAR

16

EMOTION IS A MALLEABLE SUBSTANCE

No metaphor

The basic meaning of‘explode’ is related to a physical (usually inanimate) object that bursts as a result of internal pressure. Here it is used figuratively to denote a human being. The pressure that causes the person to ‘explode’ is the anger welling up inside. There are two image schemas involved in this example, that of the container (EMOTION (anger) IS A SUBSTANCE IN A CONTAINER) and force (EMOTION (anger) IS A NATURAL FORCE). The human body is a container and the anger (substance) inside is the force causing the explosion. The translator used (uku)dubuleka, which has the same basic and figurative meanings as the ST word. Hence the translator conceptualised the word wadubuleka the same way as in the ST.

Extract 5 indicates that EMOTION IS A NATURAL FORCE:

(5) ST: “he stormed back” (Mandela 1994:426).

TT: wanggombonyeka ukungena (Mandela 2001:341) [BT: he-walked-as-though-pushed to-come-in]

In the ST, ‘stormed’ portrays the officer’s anger and the manner in which he entered the room. This is an instance of interaction of forces within the self, where the force acts upon the rational self, causing it to experience an emotion, which in turn causes a particular reaction (Kbvecses 2010). The anger that drove the prison officer to act as he did is understood in terms of a storm - hence the conceptual metaphor EMOTION (anger) IS A NATURAL FORCE (Kbvecses 2010). In the TT, ukunggombonyeka (derived from the verb ukuthi nggombo) means ‘to go somewhere as though impelled by some force’ (GDX). Hence, the conceptual metaphor underlying ukunggombonyeka is the same as that underlying the ST word: EMOTION IS A NATURAL FORCE.

Extract 6 illustrates the conceptual metaphor EMOTION (anger) IS HEAT:

(6) ST: “Badenhorst must have been fuming” (Mandela 1994:548).

TT Wayemele ukuba uyafutha ngaphakathi uBadenhorst (2001:444). [ВТ: he-must-have-been steaming inside Badenhorst]

In the ST, the contextual meaning of ‘fuming’ is related to human emotion (anger), whereas the basic meaning is “to emit fumes, smoke or vapour” (Macmillan online dictionary). The basic meaning and the contextual meaning are sufficiently distinct, rendering the conceptual metaphor ANGER IS HEAT (smoke) is (uku)futha (Kovecses 2010). The basic meaning of the corresponding target equivalent (uku)futha is to cover yourself with hot water so that you breathe in the steam (similar to a steam bath). The contextual meaning is to breathe quickly and vehemently. Ngaphakathi (‘inside’) relates the human body to a container, and the TT expression is therefore an instantiation of the conceptual metaphor: EMOTION (anger) IS STEAM IN A CONTAINER. The steam metaphor is culturally motivated, in that Xhosa people associate anger with blood boiling inside a person. Therefore, the translator similarly conceptualised the underlying metaphor ANGER IS HEAT, but the heat is expressed differently (dry in the ST but wet in the TT).

 
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