Appendix I English Language Institute General Best Practices

  • 1. Explain the purpose/language focus of the activity so that students understand the purpose/focus and how it connects to other class content and activities:
    • • for example, the purpose of this prelistening activity is to identify what you know about the topic before you listen to the lecture.
    • • for example, the purpose of this activity is to practice using indirect questions in a conversation with a partner.
  • 2. Use visual support when teaching new points, eliciting and/or providing information/answers/examples in order to:
    • • attend to auditory and visual learners
    • • support sound/symbol correspondence
    • • ensure accuracy of information/answers/examples
  • 3. Focus on the targeted skill when planning or implementing a lesson (i.e., writing in writing class, listening in listening class, etc.).
  • • for example, do not spend an entire listening class on vocabulary prelistening - include some listening.
  • • for example, when explaining the writing process, be sure to do some writing.
  • 4. Encourage students to work though language or knowledge gaps rather than always filling in the gaps for the students. For example:
    • • encourage circumlocution in speaking
    • • ask students to correct errors based on correction feedback
    • • ask students what they heard/read/know that is related to a topic/question when they cannot “answer” a question
    • • elicit answers to students’ questions from other students
  • 5. Provide positive and negative feedback during or after activities, especially when practice is focused on accuracy.
  • • for example, positive: Yes, that’s correct.
  • • for example, negative: No. That’s a good guess but not correct; Recast
  • 6. Maximize student interaction with the language:
    • • for example, ask students to read directions
    • • for example, ask students to define key words before reading/ listening
    • • for example, use pair/group work
    • • for example, minimize teacher talk
  • 7. Model directions, activities, homework, etc. as needed, but in particular when something new is introduced.
  • 8. Adjust your level of teacher talk, especially directions, explanations, and feedback, to the level of the class to maximize comprehensibility; perhaps:
    • • rate
    • • complexity
    • • vocabulary, including idioms

Appendix II Level 3 Horizontal Articulation

Level 3 Listening




■ Hartmann and Blass, 2000. Quest 1: Listening and Speaking in the Academic World, McGraw-Hill


  • • Build listening comprehension of conversational American English
  • • Introduce effective listening comprehension strategies
  • • Develop fundamental academic note-taking skills

Objectives (Objectives continued)

  • • Apply pre, while, and post listening comprehension skills (e.g., predict, infer, summarize)
  • • Guess vocabulary meaning from context
  • • Recognize meaning from tone of voice

■ Baker and Goldstein, 1990.

Pronunciation Pairs, Cambridge Univ. Press

■ Rost, 1998. Strategies in Speaking, Longman

• Increase awareness of American pronunciation of English vowels and consonants

■ Develop fundamental oral language skills that will prepare students to participate in:

• social discourse

■ class discussions

■ individual and group oral presentations

• Introduce discourse strategies


■ Utilize pronunciation illustrations and explanations

■ Aurally discriminate phonemes in limited contexts

• Produce phonemes in controlled speech with increasing accuracy

■ Ediger and Pavlik, 2000 Reading Connections: Intermediate (RC-1)

■ Rogerson et al., 1988. Words for Students of English Vol. 4. Michigan Univ. Press

■ Newbury House Dictionary of American English). Newbury House.

■ Develop the ability to read and comprehend simplified and abridged texts in English on topics of general interest with reasonable speed and efficiency

■ Increase vocabulary to a level that permits high intermediate reading

■ Introduce reading strategies for different purposes.

■ Use an English language dictionary with skill

■ Do exercises and participate in discussions to demonstrate comprehension of simplified and easier authentic texts.

■ Apply specific pre-reading strategies

■ Apply specific strategies to identify the main idea of a paragraph.

■ Scan material for specific information


Leve 3




Exit criteria

Grading policy

  • • Identify main ideas and supporting details
  • • Apply introductory note-taking skills (e.g., outlining, using abbreviations)
  • • Construct questions about listening text content

■ Identify definitions, comparisons, reasons

■ Distinguish textual relationships

■ Identify a speaker’s point of view

Students must pass the course with a grade of C- or better.

  • • Students with grades below C- may exit into Level 4 at the discretion of the student advisor in consultation with their Listening 3 teacher & supervisor and/or a Michigan test score at the Level 4 placement level.
  • 60% Listening comprehension exercises from Quest 1 and other materials
  • 30% Note-taking and quizzes from Quest 1 and other materials
  • 10% Participation


■ Produce target grammar structures in spoken English

■ Build on practiced phrases and model expressions in spontaneous speech

■ Recognize formal and informal spoken English

■ Prepare and present formal and informal speeches and presentations

■ Participate in class discussions

Students must pass the course with a grade of C- or better.

  • • Students with grades below C- may exit into Level 4 at the discretion of the student advisor in consultation with their Speaking 3 teacher & supervisor and/or a Michigan test score at the Level 4 placement Level.
  • 20% General in-class speaking activities
  • 40% Impromptu speeches, seminar speeches, and panel discussions
  • 30% Pronunciation practice 10% Participation

■ Do exercises to determine the organization of a text

• Write short answers that summarize the text to answer questions.

■ Recognize and use new vocabulary from the textbooks

■ Use context cues to understand word meaning

■ Make inferences from reading material

■ Use an English dictionary to find, pronounce, spell and use words

Students must pass the course with a grade of C- or better.

■ Students with grades below C- may exit into Level 4 at the discretion of the student advisor in consultation with their Reading 3 teacher & supervisor and/or a Michigan test score at the Level 4 placement Level.

70% Reading skills exercises and tests 20% Vocabulary exercises and quizzes 10% Class Participation



Supplemental Activities (optional)

Intensive reading component

■ Short articles from FYI

■ Abridged or edited for ESL learners

■ Some articles from publications aimed at K-12

■ Equal in emphasis in the curricula with extensive reading

Extensive reading component

• Graded readers

■ Tom Sawyer

■ Frankenstein

■ Tale of Two Cities

■ Read as a class

  • • Two per term
  • • Equal in emphasis in the curricula with intensive reading

■ Clips from movie videos to accompany the graded readers.

  • • Teacher may, with approval of the curriculum supervisor, choose additional texts for students to read and work with in class.
  • (Continued)

Level 3



■ Cavusgil, 1998. Looking Ahead 1, Heinle St Heinle.

■ Chapters covered: 1-5 & 7

■ 2000. Newbury House Dictionary, Heinle & Heinle.


  • • Compose meaningful sentences and paragraphs that focus on a central idea with appropriate support and conclusion
  • • Introduce the concept that writing is a process
  • • Express ideas in writing to the reader in as clear a way as possible
  • • Increase fluency in writing


  • • Compose logical paragraphs and short compositions conforming to the patterns presented in the text
  • • Do free-writing to increase fluency in writing
  • • Learn and use systematic steps in writing: planning, writing, editing, revising, rewriting and proofreading
  • • Practice the basic grammar structures of informational writing, persuasive writing, written definitions, and narratives
  • • Edit for correct mechanics (punctuation, capitalization, spelling)


  • • Fuchs, Bonner Sl Westheimer 2000. Focus on Grammar: An Intermediate Course for Reference and Practice, Longman
  • • For simple sentences and the principal parts of speech, students will. . .
  • • Develop grammatical accuracy in speaking and writing
  • • Develop spoken and written fluency in communicative situations
  • • Improve listening comprehension
  • • Develop ability to identify and understand the target grammar structures in reading texts
  • • Develop ability to monitor own errors in speaking and writing
  • • Use target grammar structures in focused practice for accuracy
  • • Use the target grammar structures in communicative activities with a partner or a small group
  • • Write short (3-5 sentences) paragraphs or dialogues using the target grammar structures appropriately and correctly

■ Understand the grammar structures in listening passages

■ Identify the grammar structures in short passages in the textbook

■ Recognize and correct errors of the target grammar structures in the textbook passages and the student’s own speech and writing.

Exit criteria

Grading policy




Students must pass the course with a grade of C- or better.

  • • Students with grades below C- may exit into Level 4 at the discretion of the student advisor in consultation with their Writing 3 teacher Sc supervisor and/or a Michigan test score and writing sample at the Level 4 placement level.
  • 50% Compositions and revisions outside of class
  • 40% Other writing assignments 10% Class participation

■ Intro to parts of complete sentences

■ Punctuation following logical connectors

■ Opinion structures

■ Adverbs of frequency

■ Modals - may & might in generalizations

■ Expressions of quantity

■ Connecting clauses with and, but, so

■ Comparison structures

■ Contrastive connectors

■ Conditional Sentences (real)

■ Present tense verbs

■ Generic articles and nouns

■ Adjective clauses (subject relatives in restrictive relative clauses)

■ Past tense verbs

■ Prepositional phrases in descriptions

■ Pronouns of interactive communication (we vs. you)

■ Indirect speech

Students must pass the course with a grade of C- or better.

  • • Students with grades below C- may exit into Level 4 at the discretion of the student advisor in consultation with their Grammar 3 teacher Sc supervisor and/or a Michigan test score or cumulative test score at the Grammar 3 level.
  • • 55% Written work (tests 40%, HW and written quizzes 15%)
  • • 20% Listening work
  • • 15% Speaking accuracy
  • • 10% Participation

■ Verb tenses:

■ Present: simple, perfect and progressive

■ Past: simple and progressive

■ Future (he going to and will)

■ Modals: present - by function

■ Adjectives and adverbs (including comparatives/ superlatives)

■ Gerunds Si infinitives

■ Nouns and articles, basic uses

Activities Writing Skills covered in the text chapters assigned

■ Organizing ideas from general to specific

■ Supporting generalizations with examples from personal experience

■ Extended comparison and contrast

■ Cohesion devices

■ Writing a definition

■ Supporting a definition with examples, comparisons, and opinions

■ Past time narratives

■ Chronological organizers

■ Description

■ Using details for support

■ Writing a survey

■ Summarizing information




Students should:

■ Read the introduction and explanation before class

■ Participate in grammar explanations with the teacher at the beginning of each new grammar point

■ Do written homework and study mistakes

■ Pay attention to grammar as they speak

■ Actively participate in grammar practice with the teacher, a partner or a group every day

■ Do recorded speeches in the lab

■ Take quizzes and tests and study the teacher’s corrections

■ Keep an error progress chart

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