Source (Original Speaker) Unknown
The correspondences of pry with no reference to the original speaker range from clauses with nouns such as word or rumour, clauses with the evidential verb seem, verbs think, suppose and guess, evidential adverbs and the evidential semi-auxiliary be supposed to15 to reporting clauses with verba dicendi and verbs referring “to the receptive end of the communication process” (Quirk et al. 1985, 181). Furthermore, the reporter may seek for the confirmation of the validity of the reported statement.
Sentence (8) exemplifies the noun word in the correspondence, sentence (9) a clause with the verb seem, (10) a clause with the verb suppose, and in (11) the reporter seeks a confirmation of the validity of the reported statement:
(8) Word is that Randy, the Boy Wonder, is convinced that he can turn the center into a hot acquisition target that will attract one of the big pharmaceutical companies. [En-Cz.Fict:KJA_FA]
Zazracny chlapec Randy je pry presvedceny, ze mfize ustav zmenit ve velepritazlivy cfl investorfi a prilakat jednu z nejvetsich farmaceutickych firem.
‘The wonder boy Randy is PRY convinced that
(9) So when Willem began hitting Catharina it seems Tanneke got in between them to protect her. [En-Cz.Fict:CT_GP]
Takze kdyz Willem zacal Catharinu mlatit, Tanneke pry vbehla mezi ne, aby ji chranila.
‘So when Willem began hitting Catharina, Tanneke PRY got in between them to protect her.’
(10) On a clear day I suppose it is possible to see both ranges. [En-Cz.Fict:SAR_HT]
Obe pohon je pry videt, pokud neni zatazeno.
‘Both ranges are PRY to be seen when it is not overcast.’
(11) Now tell me you’re married. [En-Cz.Subt:TD]
Muj drahy Armande, pry jsi zenaty.
‘My dear Armand, PRY you are married.’
The most frequent adverbs are the evidential ones, namely apparently, allegedly, supposedly, and reportedly:
(12) Apparently Beata had not gone to America at all. [Cz-En.
Beata pry do Ameriky vUbec neodletela.
‘Beata PRY had not gone to America at all.’
Then there is the evidential “semi-auxiliary” be supposed to:
(13) He’s supposed to be after me. So McGonagall reckons he might have sent it. [En-Cz.Fict:RJK_PA]
Jde mi pry po krku, takze McGonagallovou napadlo, ze mi Kulovy blesk mozna poslal on.
‘He is PRY after me, so ...’
Sentences (14)-(18) exemplify the cases of reporting clauses in which the source of the reported information is underspecified or entirely left out. In (14) and (15) the reporting verb has a general subject argument, namely the generically used 3rd person plural pronoun they and the noun people; most typically, however, the reporting verb is used in the passive, as in (16):
(14) They say his father was a fisherman. [En-Cz.
Jeho tata pry byl rybar.
‘His father PRY was a fisherman.’
(15) People sometimes tell me I’ve missed out on life because I never married and had children. [En-Cz.Fict:IK_AFW]
Pry jsem o mnoho prisel, protoze jsem se neozenil a nemel jsem deti.
‘PRY I’ve missed a lot because . .
(16) Though he was said to be in his mid-sixties, he didn’t look to be any older than her fifty-year-old father. [En-Cz.Fict:RF_HS]
Trebaze mu pry je kolem petasedesati, nevypadal o nic starsi nez jeji padesatilety otec.
‘Though he PRY is about sixty-five,
Sentence (17) exemplifies the tokens in which the subject argument of the reporting verb in the passive voice is the reporter (addressee in the original interchange):
(17) I’m told that the initial tests have gone very well. [En-Cz.
Klinicke testy pry zatim probihaji velice dobre.
‘The clinical tests PRY are going very well.’
Finally, (18) demonstrates a reporting clause with a communication verb referring “to the receptive end of the communication process” (Quirk et al. 1985, 181), namely the verb hear:
(18) I hear that Dubrovnik is the most beautiful city in the world. .. [En-Cz.Fict:SAR_HT]
Dubrovnik je pry nejkrasnejsi mesto na svete ...
‘Dubrovnik is PRY the most beautiful city in the world .’
All linguistic expressions (words, phrases and clauses) exemplified in (8)-(18) directly correspond to pry, that is, they are its direct equivalents. We will call such correspondences “direct correspondences” and we will differentiate them from cases in which pry is used, but, on top of that, the English reporting expressions have their own translation equivalents as well. This is the case of sentence (19), where the phrase the rumor is translated as tvrdi se [it is claimed], while pry still occurs:
(19) The rumor is that Lily and James Potter are - are - that they’re - dead [En-Cz.Fict:RJK_PS]
A tvrdi se, ze Lily a James Potterovi jsou jsou - ze pry jsou mrtvi.
‘And it is claimed that Lily and James Potter are are - that they PRY are dead.’
Correspondences such as (19), where pry is in fact added (or omitted) in the translation, since the Czech sentence contains another overt marker of indirect reporting (one which has its own counterpart in English), will be referred to as “indirect correspondences”. These, in turn, will be kept separate from the zero correspondences “proper”. The term zero correspondence will only be used for cases such as (20), in which no direct or indirect correspondence of pry can be identified:
(20) A Japanese team has arrived in Skardu and they’re paying 6 dollars a day. [En-Cz.Subt:K2]
Japonsky tym prijel do Skardu a pry plati 6 dolarn denne.
‘A Japanese team has arrived in Skardu and PRY they’re paying 6 dollars a day.’