SGB Model

Few assumptions are made to simulate SGB in TAG. When users initiate a request to dispose the waste through Telegram application, a node server accepts the request and returns geographical location and waste amount available in SGB. Moreover, it also returns the type of waste and the maximum capacity of the bin as well. Suppose if a user has no balance in account, server adds up minimum balance to SGB owners account. All the transactions are made secured using cryptocurrencies and finally transferred to SGB owner’s account.

Transaction Model

The transaction model is composed of two different entities for its transaction process:

  • 1. SGB
  • 2. User

User entity holds the information about the disposed waste and payment services, whereas the SGB attribute in the request is bound to particular transaction and each user record is identified using user account number. Similarly, QR code is unique for each transaction, and it helps the bank to distinguish different payment services. When a user wants to dispose of the waste, a server generates QR code, it sends the code to the user. Once he/she receives the QR code, it is scanned and decoded. Finally, the decoded value is sent to server. The server queries the db with the decoded value to check its existence. Based on the waste quantity and type, the amount is transferred from a user account to the SGB owner account, and here all the transactions are carried out perCoin basis.

User Domain

Users can interact with TAG in two different modes and they are as follows:

  • • Bots-Telegram application
  • • Web application

Users can use Telegram bots and send HTTP requests/commands to interact with TAG application. In addition to bots, users can also use web applications where it affords different approaches to handle and minimize the waste. It also let the users to view the summary of waste disposal, transaction details and so on. Moreover, it also encourages the user to reduce the waste in a liable way.

Tools and Technology

Different tools and technologies are used to build overall architecture of smart waste management system. MQTT queuing techniques are used to separate different category messages. Sub categories are introduced between SGB and server to identify the type of the message (i.e., to uniquely identify request/response). Geth and Truffle are utilized to run Ethereum hub and communicate smart contracts to Ethereum blockchain independently.

The first level MQTT hierarchy is classified into SGB and server, whereas the next sub level classification is performed based on the actions required. Thus, MQTT publish/subscribe messages are used for authentication and waste disposal. EthereumNodes are configured and a Geth command line tool is used to run such nodes on any machine environment. Truffle is used as development framework to build and run Ethereum. In this environment, contracts can be compiled, tested, and deployed. The implementation and analysis is carried out for both local and remote nodes with appropriate configurations.

Process Flow

The entire process flow of waste management implementation is shown in Figure 12.6.Waste collection is a key functional aspect in the waste management process. The proficient method of collecting waste prompts cleanliness and better wellbeing. Depending on the population and socioeconomic and environmental factors, each country adopted their own rules and regulations to collect the waste in both domestic and industrial sectors. In many cities in the developed countries, waste collectors gather the waste at a fixed time on scheduled day. However, in Korea the cleanliness is highly prioritized, except weekend collector’s visit every other day of the week to collect the waste. Waste collectors visit is considered as unserviceable when there isn’t sufficient waste to be collected. Subsequently, either cleanliness or eco-friendliness and assets are undermined. The important aspect is

Process flow

FIGURE 12.6 Process flow.

to identify the optimal route based on the waste status and update it to the concerned division and hence better planning can be made and services can be provided on- time. Since our proposed system is related with the cloud, the statuses of every single waste container all through the city or even nation are available from the cloud. Every one of the stakeholders along with recycling organizations can chart out the plan accordingly.

A most fundamental and simple combination of IoT gadgets with AI and block- chain is presented here.

Despite the fact that blockchain have enormous potential and hence its innovations in different dimensions need to be acknowledged. Because of the high processing time, blockchain innovation is not efficient for the applications that require fast response time. In order to overcome the dark side of blockchain, TAG has planned hybrid framework, where a central server, named smart waste management server is used to handle the requests that need quick read compose and for the rest, blockchain innovation is used to deal with the financial exchanges.

In this sort of arrangement, the sensors send information to a RaspberryPi and program compiled in RaspberryPi. Further, it uses RPC interface to communicate with the network. Each SGB runs a full Ethereum hub or a private hub is utilized to keep all these SGBs to run in a solitary private system. Every one of the information like client, installment, exchange, SGB is put away in the blockchain. The smart contracts and DAO addresses are stored in database, so that it can pursue the location and perform activities accordingly.

Process flow depicts the flow of control inside various parts of TAG. This represents the association between various segments and if waste is available with user, the waste disposal procedure is categorized into three different parts.


The key components engaged in this procedure are SWM server, Firebase database, Telegram bot to serve user and end user. Application users interacts with Telegram bot to dispose waste, where such bots are running in SWM server to serve the client requests. Ethereum creates a record number for each client request and this record is enlisted in blockchain. The SWM server checks for sufficient balance amount in the user’s financial account. Suppose, if the record has balance more than zero or less than the minimum amount, then the event triggers the server to produce an irregular number of 10 alphanumeric characters, creates a QR code for it and sends to user to record data. An exchange record with an inadequate status is also included into the database at the same time. With the QR code, an area solicitation is also sent. When user sends their area location details to SWM server, then all the SGB with a specific range of user’s area is returned as a Google map.


Once the client received the QR code and location specific details, the location of SGB can be explored utilizing the Google map. The QR reader in SGB examines the QR code of user received by Telegram application. When the QR code is checked and decoded, the SGB distributes the decoded code to a MQTT broker to subscribe the topic. The SWM server also checks for the legitimacy of the code and respond to it. Once SWM server recognizes that, it can check the decoded value and bin lids are opened for further process.


Once the cover of SGB is opened, the client can dispose the waste into the SGB based on the communication with the SWM in the above procedures. When the top of SGB is shut, the complete load of the SGB is determined and distributed to the SWM server. The SWM server evaluates the distinction between the past weight and the present load in SGB and finds out the measure of weight client kept. Utilizing weight-rate-based estimation, the amount that needs to pay to the user is determined. The exchange record with inadequate data like expense of administration, client account, date, measure of waste are set as incomplete records in database. Finally, amount needs to be paid to the transaction request initiated by SGB owner and it is made to blockchain using the Web3 interface.

Route Optimization

When the collection of waste is being done, the waste collectors need to design a superior and eco-friendly route plan by considering the status of waste containers in a city region. By this way, redundant visits are avoided and hence, resources are conserved. Similarly, based on the bin status, trucks are assigned to collect wastes from the local workplaces. The information will be sent to Central Control Center (CCC), where payment calculation is made and priority table is constructed based on waste amount.

The regional sites that are filled up waste are treated first. The highest amount of waste collected by a truck is considered, where if the amount of waste is more than truck carry limit, the algorithm will assign another truck to balance the workload. Multilayer perceptrons is one of the most profound learning methods for nonlinear classification and regression model, and it is often used for classification and prediction. These techniques were used to predict the waste in certain areas and schedule a route plan accordingly.

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