Microplastic

The highest microplastic density is found in plot 1 of all observation stations, which is the highest tidal boundary. Density decreases in the lowest tide and lows. This indicates that in the intertidal zone, the microplastic decreases in density as the distance to the sea increases. Proven similarly is that the microplastic density in tidal zones at the highest tidal boundary is higher than at the lowest tidal boundary, and there is a real difference between the two [14,28]. The zone at the lowest tide is a very dynamic zone; deposition can occur constantly. Sediments in the upper layers in this zone are susceptible to runoff and become suspended again.

Microplastic film type is the highest type found in all observation plots. The film comes from fragmentation of plastic waste such as packets of food and soft drinks, plastic bags and plastic wrapping commonly used in fishing activities. The film also has the lowest density, so it is easily distributed by the presence of currents and tides [18,28]. Other research results on the Belgian Coast [28] gained microplastic fiber type flavors (59%). While in Muara Badak, East Kalimantan [29], the highest abundance of microplastic fragments (58.97%) was found. This indicates the type of microplastic depends on the

TABLE 5.2 The Percentage of Density and Average Density of Microplastic

Station

Film

Percentage of Microplastic Abundance

(%)

Abundance Average (Item/kg)

Fiber

Fragment

Pellet

1

60.27

22.30

17.47

0

89

2

45.07

30.03

24.63

0.3

173.33

3

51.57

22.30

26.13

0

64

Total

52.30

24.88

22.74

0.1

326.33

macroplastic and the source of the plastic pollutant. The high fiber on the Belgian coast is due to the point of location close to the fishery port area. Fiber is derived from the activity of catching while the fragment is the result of a piece of plastic product with a very strong synthesis polymer (Table 5.2) [28].

The result of the Kruskal-Wallis test shows that the density of microplastic between stations is significantly different with the value of p = 0.0. This indicates that there is one station with a microplastic density that is significantly different from other stations. Mann-Whitney test results show that the stationary microplastic density station 1 is significantly different from station 2 with p value = 0.031 and not significantly different from station 3 with p = 0.094. The station’s microplastic density station 2 differs significantly from station 3 with p = 0.002. This proves that the microplastic density will be higher with reduced distance from the main pollutant source, and with increasing distance from the main pollutant source, the density is more affected by other pollutant sources such as river and sea currents [30]. The result of the Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the microplastic density between the observed plots was not significantly different with the value of p = 0.984.

Macrozoobenthos

The highest density of macrozoobenthos was found in station 3 with a density of 61 ind m~2. In plot 1, station 2, no macrozoobenthos is found in any depth stratification. The average density of macrozoobenthos at the observation point can be seen in Table 5.3.

The result of analysis using Pearson correlation shows the relationship between macrozoobenthos density with macroplastic equal to 0.633 with the level of strong and

TABLE 5.3 The Average Density of Macrozoobenthos

Stations

Macrozoobenthos Density

Total

la

2a

3a

10b

20b

30b

10b

20b

30b

10b

20b

30b

1

6

4

4

5

3

3

4

3

4

36

2

0

0

0

3

2

3

3

5

3

18

3

2

13

3

19

5

2

9

4

3

61

Total

8

17

7

26

10

8

16

12

10

115

a Plot. b Depth.

microplastic relationship of 0.386 with the low level of relationship. Macroplastic density with microplastic of 0.756 with strong relationship level. This suggests that macroplastic density affects macrozoobenthos density. Increased macroplastic density causes decreased macrozoobenthos density. The macroplastic can close the surface of the sediment and disrupt the movement of aquatic organisms [6,9].

Microplastic density has a low correlation to macrozoobenthos, presumably because microplastic affects the digestive system of macrozoobenthos which can lead to accumulation in macrobenthos digestive organs [7,8,18,30]. Macroplastic density with microplastic of 0.756 with strong relationship level. This indicates that the micro plastic density is affected by the macroplastic density. The higher the macroplastic density will lead to increased microplastic density. Microplasticity results from macroplastic fragmentation [1,7,28,29,31].

 
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