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Concluding Remarks

Citrullination has been recognized as an important PTM in an increasingly wide range of diseases and other regulatory processes. There are several challenges regarding the detection of citrullinated peptides by mass spectrometry; however, with the advent of efficient enrichment methods like those developed by Tutturen et al. [104], the number of citrullinated peptides it is possible to identify has increased dramatically. The modification of citrulline inherent in these enrichment methods increases the confidence in assignment as the mass shift is no longer the same as that for deamidation. Enrichment of citrullinated peptides is in its infancy but is showing great promise for the improved identification of a PTM, which is being identified as a key regulator in cell biology.

Acknowledgements

AJC and HJC are funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research

Council (EPSRC) (EP/L023490/1).

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