Karen Horney Clinic
The Karen Horney Clinic opened on May 6, 1955 in New York City, in honor of Horney's achievements. The institution seeks to research and train medical professionals, particularly in the psychiatric fields, as well as serving as a low-cost treatment center. The Neo-Freudian psychiatrists and psychologists were those followers of Sigmund Freud who at some time in their career accepted the basic tenets of his theory of psychoanalysis but altered it in some way. Jung, for example, de-emphasised the sexual nature of the libido and emphasised archetypes; Erik Erikson came up with de-sexualised stages of development roughly correlating to Freud's psychosexual stages.
• Alex Unger
• Mark Blechner
• Karen Horney
• Frieda Fromm-Reichmann
• Carl Jung
• Harry Stack Sullivan
• Michael Balint
• Wilfred Bion
• John Bowlby
• Nina Coltart
• Sandor Ferenczi
• Merton Gill
• Harry Guntrip
• Heinz Hartmann
• Betty Joseph
• Jacques Lacan
• Hans Loewald
• Alfred Adler
• Erik Erikson
• Erich Fromm
• Clara Thompson
• Jessica Benjamin
• Christopher Bollas
• Nancy Chodorow
• W.R.D. Fairbairn
• Anna Freud
• Jay Greenberg
• Richard Hakim
• Edith Jacobson
• Otto Kernberg
• Edgar Levenson
• Margaret Mahler
• Juliet Mitchell
• Thomas Ogden
• Fred Pine
• David Rapaport
• Roy Schafer
• Donald Spence
• Robert Stolorow
• Harry Stack Sullivan
• Stephen Mitchell
• Adam Phillips
• Heinrich Racker
• Joseph Sandler
• Harold Searles
• Daniel Stern
• D.W. Winnicott
Behaviorists explain personality in terms of the effects external stimuli have on behavior. It was a radical shift away from Freudian philosophy. This school of thought was developed by B.F. Skinner who put forth a model which emphasized the mutual interaction of the person or "the organism" with its environment. Skinner believed children do bad things because the behavior obtains attention that serves as a reinforcer. For example: a child cries because the child's crying in the past has led to attention. These are the response and consequences. The response is the child crying and the attention that child gets is the reinforcing consequence. According to this theory, people's behavior is formed by processes such as operant conditioning. Skinner put forward a "three term contingency model" which helped promote analysis of behavior based on the "Stimulus-Response-Consequence Model" in which the critical question is: "Under which circumstances or antecedent 'stimuli' does the organism engage in a particular behavior or 'response', which in turn produces a particular 'consequence'?" Richard Herrnstein extended this theory by accounting for attitudes and traits. An attitude develops as the response strength (the tendency to respond) in the presences of a group of stimuli become stable. Rather than describing conditionable traits in non-behavioral language, response strength in a given situation accounts for the environmental portion. Herrstein also saw traits as having a large genetic or biological component as do most modern behaviorists.
Ivan Pavlov is another notable influence. He is well known for his classical conditioning experiments involving dogs. These physiological studies led him to discover the foundation of behaviorism as well as classical conditioning.
Social Cognitive Theories
In cognitivism, behavior is explained as guided by cognitions (e.g., expectations) about the world, especially those about other people. Cognitive theories are theories of personality that emphasize cognitive processes such as thinking and judging.
Albert Bandura, a social learning theorist suggested the forces of memory and emotions worked in conjunction with environmental influences. Bandura was known mostly for his "Bobo Doll experiment". During these experiments, Bandura video taped a college student kicking and verbally abusing a bobo doll. He then showed this video to a class of kindergarten children who were getting ready to go out to play. When they entered the play room, they saw bobo dolls and some hammers. The people observing these children at play saw a group of children beating the doll. He called this study and his findings observational learning, or modeling.
Early examples of approaches to cognitive style are listed by Baron (1982). These include Witkin's (1965) work on field dependency, Gardner's (1953) discovering people had consistent preference for the number of categories they used to categorize heterogeneous objects and Block and Petersen's (1955) work on confidence in line discrimination judgments. Baron relates early development of cognitive approaches of personality to ego psychology. More central to this field have been:
• Self-efficacy work, dealing with confidence people have in abilities to do tasks;
• Locus of control theory dealing with different beliefs people have about whether their worlds are controlled by themselves or external factors;
• Attributional style theory dealing with different ways in which people explain events in their lives. This approach builds upon locus of control, but extends it by stating we also need to consider whether people attribute to stable causes or variable causes and to global causes or specific causes.
Various scales have been developed to assess both attributional style and locus of control. Locus of control scales include those used by Rotter and later by Duttweiler, the Nowicki and Strickland (1973) Locus of Control Scale for Children and various locus of control scales specifically in the health domain, most famously that of Kenneth Wallston and his colleagues, The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale. Attributional style has been assessed by the Attributional Style Questionnaire, the Expanded Attributional Style Questionnaire, the Attributions Questionnaire the Real Events Attributional Style Questionnaire and the Attributional Style Assessment Test.
Walter Mischel (1999) has also defended a cognitive approach to personality. His work refers to "Cognitive Affective Units" and considers factors such as encoding of stimuli, affect, goal-setting and self-regulatory beliefs. The term "Cognitive Affective Units" shows how his approach considers affect as well as cognition.
Personal Construct Psychology (PCP) is a theory of personality developed by the American psychologist George Kelly in the 1950s. From the theory, Kelly derived a psychotherapy approach and also a technique called The Repertory Grid Interview that helped his patients to uncover their own "constructs" (defined later) with minimal intervention or interpretation by the therapist. The Repertory Grid was later adapted for various uses within organizations, including decision-making and interpretation of other people's world-views. From his 1963 book, A Theory of Personality, pp. 103104:
• Fundamental Postulate: A person's processes are psychologically channelized by the ways in which the person anticipates events.
• Construction Corollary: A person anticipates events by construing their replications.
• Individuality Corollary: People differ from one another in their construction of events.
• Organization Corollary: Each person characteristically evolves, for convenience in anticipating events, a construction system embracing ordinal relationships between constructs.
• Dichotomy Corollary: A person's construction system is composed of a finite number of dichotomous constructs.
• Choice Corollary: People choose for themselves the particular alternative in a dichotomized construct through which they anticipate the greater possibility for extension and definition of their system.
• Range Corollary: A construct is convenient for the anticipation of a finite range of events only.
• Experience Corollary: A person's construction system varies as the person successively construes the replication of events.
• Modulation Corollary: The variation in a person's construction system is limited by the permeability of the constructs within whose ranges of conveniences the variants lie.
• Fragmentation Corollary: A person may successively employ a variety of construction subsystems which are inferentially incompatible with each other.
• Commonality Corollary: To the extent that one person employs a construction of experience which is similar to that employed by another, the psychological processes of the two individuals are similar to each other.
• Sociality Corollary: To the extent that one person construes another's construction processes,
that person may play a role in a social process involving the other person.