Stephen McGuire defined and validated a model of organizational culture that predicts revenue from new sources. An Entrepreneurial Organizational Culture (EOC) is a system of shared values, beliefs and norms of members of an organization, including valuing creativity and tolerance of creative people, believing that innovating and seizing market opportunities are appropriate behaviors to deal with problems of survival and prosperity, environmental uncertainty and competitors' threats and expecting organizational members to behave accordingly.
Elements of Entrepreneurial Culture
• People and empowerment focused
• Value creation through innovation and change
• Attention to the basics
• Hands-on management
• Doing the right thing
• Freedom to grow and to fail
• Commitment and personal responsibility
• Emphasis on the future
Writers from Critical management studies have tended to express skepticism about the functionalist and unitarist views of culture put forward by mainstream management thinkers. Whilst not necessarily denying that organizations are cultural phenomena, they would stress the ways in which cultural assumptions can stifle dissent and reproduce management propaganda and ideology. After all, it would be naive to believe that a single culture exists in all organizations, or that cultural engineering will reflect the interests of all stakeholders within an organization. In any case, Parker has suggested that many of the assumptions of those putting forward theories of organizational culture are not new. They reflect a long-standing tension between cultural and structural (or informal and formal) versions of what organizations are. Further, it is perfectly reasonable to suggest that complex organizations might have many cultures and that such sub-cultures might overlap and contradict each other. The neat typologies of cultural forms found in textbooks rarely acknowledge such complexities, or the various economic contradictions that exist in capitalist organizations.
One of the strongest and widely recognized criticisms of theories that attempt to categorize or 'pigeonhole' organizational culture is that put forward by Linda Smircich. She uses the metaphor of a plant root to represent culture, describing that it drives organizations rather than vice versa. Organizations are the product of organizational culture, we are unaware of how it shapes behaviour and interaction (also recognized through Scheins (2002) underlying assumptions) and so how can we categorize it and define what it is?
Organizational communication perspective on culture
The organizational communication perspective on culture is divided into three areas:
• Traditionalism: Views culture through objective things such as stories, rituals and symbols.
• Interpretivism: Views culture through a network of shared meanings (organization members sharing subjective meanings).
• Critical-Interpretivism: Views culture through a network of shared meanings as well as the power struggles created by a similar network of competing meanings.
• 7Cs in communication:
There are many different types of communication that contribute in creating an organizational culture:
• Metaphors such as comparing an organization to a machine or a family reveal employees' shared meanings of experiences at the organization.
• Stories can provide examples for employees of how to or not to act in certain situations.
• Rites and ceremonies combine stories, metaphors and symbols into one. Several different kinds of rites that affect organizational culture:
□ Rites of passage: Employees move into new roles.
□ Rites of degradation: Employees have power taken away from them.
□ Rites of enhancement: Public recognition for an employee's accomplishments.
□ Rites of renewal: Improve existing social structures.
□ Rites of conflict reduction: Resolve arguments between certain members or groups.
□ Rites of integration: Reawaken feelings of membership in the organization.
• Reflexive comments are explanations, justifications and criticisms of our own actions. This includes:
□ Plans: Comments about anticipated actions.
□ Commentaries: Comments about action in the present.
□ Accounts: Comments about an action or even that has already occurred.
Such comments reveal interpretive meanings held by the speaker as well as the social rules they follow.
• Fantasy Themes are common creative interpretations of events that reflect beliefs, values and goals of the organization. They lead to rhetorical visions, or views of the organization and its environment held by organization members.
Schemata (plural of schema) are knowledge structures a person forms from past experiences allowing them to respond to similar events more efficiently in the future by guiding the processing of information. Schemata are created through interaction with others and thus inherently involve communication.
Stanley G. Harris argues that five categories of in-organization schemata are necessary for organizational culture:
• Self-in-organization schemata: A person's concept of themselves within the context of the organization, including their personality, roles and behavior.
• Person-in-organization schemata: A person's memories, impressions and expectations of other individuals within the organization.
• Organization schemata: Subset of person schemata, a person's generalized perspective on others as a whole in the organization.
• Object/concept-in-organization schemata: Knowledge an individual has of organization aspects other than other people.
• Event-in-organization schemata: A person's knowledge of social events within an organization. All of these categories together represent a person's knowledge of an organization. Organizational
culture is created when the schemata's of individuals within an organization come to resemble each other. This is primarily done through organizational communication as individuals directly or indirectly share knowledge and meanings.