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Crime and intelligence analysis: an integrated real-time approach

I Crime and the Twenty-First CenturyThe Crime ProblemIs There a Crime Problem in the United States?But what do ordinary citizens say?Analyzing the Crime ProblemThis Book Is an Introduction to Crime AnalysisTechnology and CrimeQuestions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferencesWhat Do We Know about Crime?How Is Crime Measured?Reporting on the Amount of CrimeUniform Crime ReportsChanges in UCRWhere Do the Statistics for the UCR Program Come From?UCR and Violent CrimeUCR and Property CrimeUCR and ClearancesUCR and Crime RatesUCR and Arrest RatesDrawbacks of the UCR ProgramResults from the UCR ProgramNational Incident-Based Reporting SystemBeyond the UCR ProgramNational Crime Victimization SurveyStrengths and Drawbacks of the NCVSResults of the NCVSSelf-Report DataResults of Self-Report StudiesDrawbacks of Self-Report MeasuresComparing the Results of the UCR Program, the NCVS, and Self-Report MeasuresViewing Crime through the Prism of StatisticsUtilizing Statistics as a Form of Accountability: CompStatThe Crime Analyst and StatisticsStatistical Data and Law Enforcement: From Incident to EvaluationProcess of Data Collection and StorageRecords Management SystemArcGISWorking the Collected Data Using Data SetsQuestions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferencesWhat Causes People to Commit Crimes?Theories about the Origins of CrimeEarly TheoriesClassical TheoriesBiological TheoriesThe PositivistsPsychoanalysis and PsychologyOther Psychological TheoriesSociological ExplanationsIs It Nature or Nurture?Which Theory or Theories Work Best for the Crime Analyst?What Use Does the Tactical Crime Analyst Have for Criminological Theories?The Standard ModelCommunity PolicingBroken Windows PolicingProblem-Oriented PolicingIntelligence-Led PolicingModus Operandi of the Criminal OffenderWhy Do We Still Have Crime?Questions for DiscussionStudy Guide QuestionsReferencesII Law Enforcement— Then and Now The Police and Law Enforcement—It's Come a Long WayLaw Enforcement Response to CrimesDo State or Federal Law Enforcement Officers Respond?How Did Our Dual System of Policing Evolve?The First Police DepartmentsTransitional PolicingResearch on Policing and the Prevention of CrimeRole of Police Officers TodayPatrol FunctionPeacekeeping and Order MaintenanceTraffic Enforcement FunctionsCriminal InvestigationsInvestigative ProcessThe InvestigatorEras of Police Reform Leading to ChangeCompStatPolicing in the 2000sQuestions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferencesPolice Investigations in the Twenty-First CenturyRules of Procedure in Collecting EvidenceSearch and SeizureProcedural LawRules of EvidenceExclusionary RuleFruit of the Poisonous Tree DoctrineExceptions to the Search Warrant RulePlain-View SearchesConsent to SearchExigent CircumstancesSearch of an AutomobileSearch of a Person: The Pat-Down SearchPublic Safety ExceptionsGood Faith ExceptionInterrogation of SuspectsCriminal Investigation and IntelligenceQuestions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferencesIII Intelligence and Intelligence Analysis An Introduction to IntelligenceCrime: KidnappingCriminal InvestigationsHow Investigations Are Carried OutFollow-Up InvestigationEvidenceDirect and Circumstantial EvidenceBasic Investigative Leads and InformantsThe Crime Analyst and Police InvestigationsCase: HomicideConfidential InformantsRole of Databases in InvestigationsIntelligence ReportsCriminal ProfilesGeographical ProfilingTime-Event Charting and Link AnalysisQuestions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferencesIntelligence and the Tactical AnalystReal-Time Crime CentersCase Study: Robbery InvestigationIntelligence ProcessFive-Step Intelligence ProcessCase Study: Assisting with the Identification of an Out-Of-State Murder SuspectStep 1: Planning StageStep 2: Collection StageStep 3: Processing StageStep 4: Analysis StageStep 5: Dissemination StageThe Intelligence AnalystAnalyst ResponsibilitiesIntelligence-Led PolicingCase Study: Shots FiredInformation Derived from the FieldIntelligence Derived through the Intelligence Process: The Threat IdentifiedStrategic Planning Based on Developed IntelligenceIntelligence and the Terrorist ThreatQuestions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferencesCollecting IntelligenceInterplay between the Intelligence Analyst and the Criminal InvestigatorSources of InformationQuestions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferencesData Mining and Analyzing IntelligenceIntroductionWhat Is Data Mining?How Does Data Mining Work?Computer-Based Transaction ProcessingRole of Information Technology and Transaction ProcessingAnalytical SystemsSoftware Available for Data Mining in Criminal JusticeStatisticalMachine LearningNeural NetworkEntity ExtractionsClustersAssociationsSequentialsSumming UpQuestions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferencesIV Crime AnalysisНistory and Types of Crime AnalysisClassification of Crime AnalysisGoals of Tactical Crime AnalysisThe Tactical Crime Analyst Working in Real TimeTactical Analysis, Crisis Management, and NegotiationWhat the Tactical Analyst Needs to UnderstandCrisis Management ProtocolTactical Analyst Training Is CrucialHostage/Crisis NegotiatorTactical Analyst in a Crisis SituationTraining of the Tactical Crime AnalystMutual UnderstandingCase StudyStrategic Crime AnalysisGoals of Strategic Crime AnalysisAdministrative Crime AnalysisExamples of Administrative Crime AnalysisPolice Operations AnalysisFour Types of Crime AnalysisQuestions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferencesTactical Crime AnalysisIdentifying Emerging Crime PatternsStandards and Definitions Related to Crime PatternsWhat Is a Crime Pattern?What a Crime Pattern Is NotCrime Pattern TypesThe Crime Analyst’s Task in Identifying Emerging Crime PatternsAnalyzing Carefully the Crime PatternNotify the Police Department about the Identified PatternTools for Analyst CommunicationWork with the Police to Address the Crime PatternProviding Actionable InformationGetting Analysts out of the OfficeArray of Tactics and StrategiesEncouraging Initiative throughout the Police DepartmentThe Ideal Is a Formal Response ProcessProcess of Investigation: Pattern Crime InvestigationsPattern InvestigationCommonalitiesContact InformationQuestions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferencesTactical Crime Analysis and Hot Spots PolicingCrime Hot Spot TheoriesRoutine Activities TheoryCrime Pattern TheoryA Theory of Crime PlacesSituational Crime Prevention TheoryBroken Windows TheoryCrime Opportunity TheorySocial Disorganization TheoryCrime Pattern TheoryHow Are Hot Spots Identified?Maps and Geographic Information SystemsDifferent Kinds of Maps Generated by GISHot StreetsHot AreasStandard Deviation AnalysisGrid Cell Mapping AnalysisStatistical Testing for Hot SpotsPoint Pattern AnalysisTests for ClusteringGlobal Statistical TestsWhy use spatial statistics?What Is Hot Spots Policing?Crime Prevention through Environmental DesignQuestions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferencesStrategic Crime AnalysisFocus in Strategic Crime AnalysisLong-Range Perspective of Strategic Crime AnalysisCrime Trends Analyzed by Strategic Crime AnalysisData That Strategic Crime Analysts ExamineQualitative versus Quantitative ResearchQualitative MethodsField ResearchContent AnalysisInterviewsSurveysFocus GroupsEnvironmental AssessmentAfter Identifying Crime Trends, Then What?Recommendations for Crime Trend SolutionsUsing the Problem Analysis TriangleFormulating HypothesesFinal ReportWriting and Distributing ReportsFinal Goal of Crime AnalysisQuestions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferencesAdministrative Crime AnalysisWhy Is It Called Administrative Crime Analysis?Administrative Crime Analysis: Low-Priority Analysis?How Administrative Crime Analysts Gather DataCrime Mapping and Administrative Crime AnalysisUsing the InternetQuestions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferencesPolice Operations Crime AnalysisWhat Kinds of Recommendations Do Operations Analysts Make?Examples of RecommendationsQuestions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferencesV Crime Analysis and the FutureCrime Analysis and the Future of PolicingWhat Makes for a Good Crime Analyst?Crime Analyst Qualifications and Job DescriptionsCrime Analyst IThe essential functions of this position are as follows:Education for Crime AnalystsTechnology and the Future of PolicingChallenges to Integrating Crime Analysis into PolicingQuestions for DiscussionImportant TermsStudy Guide QuestionsReferences
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