Proposed Cloud-Based Model

This chapter proposes a cloud-based model for mobile phones. A flow diagram of the model is presented in Figure 10.2. The cloud-based model diagram is presented in Figure 10.3. Figure 10.4 shows the use case diagram of the passenger and the mobile phone app. Figure 10.5 shows the use case diagram of the conductor and the e-validator (electronic ticket-issuing machine [ETIM]). Figure 10.6 shows the mobile app interface.

The model used for the payment of a fare needs two actors: the conductor/staff and the passenger. Our assumptions regarding the bus conductor/staff and the passengers are as follows:

1. Passengers have Internet-enabled smartphones or tablets connected to the Internet and also have an account registered with the mobile phone app that will be used to pay the fare. The passenger database is maintained by the transport authorities in the cloud.


Flow diagram showing the interaction of the passenger with the mobile phone application.


Mobile phone-based cashless travel model in the cloud.


Use case diagram showing the interaction between the passenger and the mobile phone application.


Use case diagram showing the interaction between the conductor/staff and the e-validator, also known as ETIM.

2. The conductor or public transport vehicle staff has the ETIM that will be used to generate the fare transaction confirmation number for the passenger after successful verification of the bar code generated after online payment of the fare by the passenger via his or her mobile phone app.

All operations, such as signing into the mobile app, performing fare payment, checking the remaining balance, and getting details of previous transactions corresponding to a passenger, are performed in the cloud.

One has to register in the mobile app from any mobile phone. The login username and password generated can be used for signing in to any mobile phone or tablet having the app. So, in case a passenger loses his or her mobile phone, he or she can use the username and password generated earlier for signing into his or her new mobile phone after installing the app.


Various activities of the mobile phone application used for the online payment of fares.

From the flow diagram in Figure 10.2, it can be seen that the mobile phone app for online payment of fares has the following functionalities:

  • 1. Assuming that the passenger is registered on the app, he or she signs into the app using his or her username and password. If the login details are correct, the passenger is taken to the main menu containing the options balance enquiry, pay for e-ticket, add e-wallet cash, previous transactions, and log out. If the login details are incorrect, the mobile activity displays wrong password and redirects the user back to the login activity.
  • 2. Balance enquiry: This option shows the current balance in the e-wallet maintained on the cloud and connected to the mobile phone app.
  • 3. Pay for e-ticket: Each form of public transport, such as public buses, has a unique bar code/quick response (QR) code issued by the transport authorities. Passengers traveling via public transport need to scan in the bar code/QR code (displayed in the bus or other public transport) to the mobile phone app with the mobile phone camera. If the code is not scanned properly, a message is issued requesting the user to scan again and redirecting him or her back to the scan bar code/QR code displayed in vehicle activity. If the scanned code is correct, the user is asked to enter the valid ticket amount. If the amount entered is invalid (example: if fares are in denominations of Rs 15 or Rs 25 and the passenger enters Rs 17), then a message is issued requesting the user to check the amount entered. If the amount entered is valid, the amount equivalent to the fare is deducted from the user's e-wallet and a confirmation bar code is generated that he or she has to submit to the conductor or bus staff with the ETIM.
  • 4. Add e-wallet cash: Selecting this option from the main menu will ask for the user's bank details. After entering the bank details, the e-wallet is recharged. Also, users can connect their bank accounts with the e-wallet, allowing autorecharge at the end of each week.
  • 5. Previous transactions: Selecting this option will display the fares paid for the current week along with their transaction identification (ID).
  • 6. Log out: Sign out of the app when not using the app.

Figure 10.3 explains the model in the cloud. The cloud contains the passenger details in the database and the payment operations that can be performed. It also stores the unique bar codes/QR codes issued by the transport authorities for all public vehicles in the database. The administrator maintains the cloud. The passenger sends a request for fare payment to the cloud via the mobile phone app. After a successful transaction, the confirmation bar code is displayed to the passenger. The passenger shows the confirmation bar code to the conductor/staff. The conductor verifies the confirmation bar code with the e-validator machine (ETIM). The e-validator machine verifies the passenger database and the payment operations performed in the cloud. After successful verification, the ETIM confirms the transaction.

The use case diagram in Figure 10.4 shows that the passenger can interact with the mobile phone app to receive a login password after successful registration on the app, perform payment, check balance in the e-wallet, recharge the e-wallet, scan the bar code/QR code, or receive the confirmation bar code after a successful fare transaction.

The use case diagram in Figure 10.5 shows that the conductor/staff can interact with the e-validator machine (or ETIM) by using the bar-code reader to read and verify the bar code displayed by the passenger, confirm the fare paid, and then generate the confirmation number.

Figure 10.6 illustrates the various activities of the mobile phone app to be designed for the online payment of fares. These activities can be coded and designed for the Android platform.

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