The information has become an important resource for institutions due to what has become the reality of current technological development. The manual recording of information now depends on advanced techniques and methods accompanied by high technology with great capabilities in both production processes and in the collection of data.


These are facts that relate to events, whether inside or outside the institution. It refers to these unregulated raw materials and facts, which have no value in their initial [1]. It refers to these unregulated raw materials and facts, which have no value in their initial [2].

This means that data can be considered raw materials obtained through the survey of the internal and external environment of the institution, which was expressed in numbers and values and was used for the first time, such as the volume of sales of an institution.

Regarding the data types, we can indicate that data is divided into two parts [2]: [1]


There are many definitions of information, the most important of which are:

  • • Knowledge is the meaning and benefit of the individual who is presented to him in achieving his goals, so it has value [3]. Knowledge means information after processing and organized to turn it into an experience that is the final outcome to use the information [1].
  • • It is the data processed that have undergone conversion and operation to be in a useful form for use [2].
  • • It is the data that has been prepared to become in a more useful form for its future and has a perceived value in the current or expected use or in the decisions taken [3].
  • • If we compare data, information, and knowledge, we find that the relationship between these three definitions is interrelated, combining them with an obligatory relationship. The data that is without value at the beginning of their acquisition become after the processing of valuable information, which in turn becomes knowledge for the user in relation to the extent to which they benefit from them.
  • • When taking on a decision-making process for the decision-maker, it needs many facts that facilitate this process and must have all the facts without distortion or modification; however, information is the basis of the decision-making process, and the information must be accurate and clear.
  • • And to get them in time, and it must be clear and appropriate for the purpose for which it was prepared, inclusive covering all aspects of the user’s interest, flexible to adapt to all needs, and to be diverse and sourced. Alternatively, detailed and be reliable based on the accuracy of the information system inputs in the organization [3].

It is known that any system consists of inputs, processes, and outputs, so the information system is the system through which data is converted into information through operations.

The inputs to this system include data related to the economic events of the organization and external such as sales prices, or internal such as prices of materials used, and then start operations from the moment the data enter the system to convert them such as multiplying the sales quantity in the unit price to determine the value of sales, which is the output of the system [4]. This process includes the following steps:

  • • Data acquisition in which data from events that occur in a particular form are recorded as purchase orders.
  • • Validation of the data is validated as a review of the work of another person.
  • • Classification means that the data elements in certain sectors as sales figures are classified by type of inventory.
  • • Sorting and ordering any data elements placed in a specific or predefined order.
  • • Summarize and combine data elements by reducing data such.
  • • Calculating for the use of data such as mathematical operations required to access the salaries of employees.
  • • Storing any data placed in storage places in a particular medium such as documents or magnetic tapes, which can be retrieved when needed.
  • • Retrieving, which requires searching and obtaining any partial data elements from the medium used for storage.
  • • Reproducing data from one medium to another or in another location of the same mean, such as re-recording from disk to disk.
  • • Spreading or communicating by any means to transfer data to another place [5].

Regarding the types of information systems, we can notice [5]:

  • 1. Data Processing Systems: It collects records and processes data about the daily events of the organization’s activities and provides them as information, which expresses routine reports.
  • 2. Office Automation System: Serves individuals who deal with data processing for the purpose of speeding up business.
  • 3. Knowledge Systems: Serves personnel responsible for creating and operating information in the organization.
  • 4. Managing Information Systems: She provides information to managers at the managerial level, which are considered daily or exceptional reports, she gets her information from data processing systems, and she helps monitor current performance and predict future.
  • 5. Decision Support Systems: It combines data with analytical models to support decisions. It has analytical capabilities that allow the user to take advantage of advanced models in information analysis and rely on interaction with the end-user because they work without programmers and professionals’ help and provide support for decisions and problems that cannot be resolved in advance. It responds to changing circumstances as per user requirements and relies on information provided by data processing systems, knowledge systems, management information systems, and information from other systems.
  • 6. Executive Support Systems: They are designed for managers at the strategic level to support decisions based on internal information summarized and used from management information systems and decision support systems and external information resulting from events in the environment surrounding the institution. It is based on the provision of information to managers upon request as it depends on a general computer system and communication capabilities that can be applied in different situations.
  • 9.2.4 DATABASE

It is a structured repository of data related to the fries of the institution and the appointment of a set of records of the organization in full. It includes a set of regulated records that are free of duplication, independent of programs, and accessible to all users of the system [6].

According to this study, it is clear to us that the data is the nucleus on which the information is based, but this data, unless processed and analyzed well, will lead to loss of quality. And this is what helps the information system in the institution, which provides support for decision-making through data analysis with the help of technological mechanisms and advanced scientific software.

  • [1] Numeric Data: They take specific values. 2. Representative Data: Data that takes many unlimited values.
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